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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunotherapy: a brief review of the history, possibilities, and challenges ahead

    Stanley J. Oiseth, Mohamed S. Aziz
    The knowledge that the body possesses natural defenses to combat cancer existed long before the modern period, with multiple anecdotal reports of tumors miraculously disappearing, sometimes spontaneously or after a febrile or infectious episode. Spontaneous tumor regression of untreated malignant tumors is currently a well-accepted albeit rare phenomenon, and it is recognized that immunosuppression is associated with a higher cancer risk. The treatment of bladder carcinoma by intravesical administration of live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin bacteria was shown to be very effective in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:250-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.41
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:34881  | Downloaded:3978
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of circulating tumor cells in future diagnosis and therapy of cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar, Navjeet Kaur Lotey
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become a blistering topic of discussion for oncologists because of their tremendous potential in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Over the past few years, they have been doled with quite an amount of research in this area understanding that CTCs are shed from tumors and circulate in the bloodstream. This process can also occur at an early stage of cancer. The major limitation in isolation of CTCs is their availability in limited numbers. Hence, many techniques have been developed and are under continuous improvement to enhance their effi cacy of CTC... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:44-56. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.158803
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:29774  | Downloaded:2084
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment|Open Access

    Therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells

    Yu Jeong Kim, Elizabeth L. Siegler, Natnaree Siriwon, Pin Wang
    The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs present a challenge for cancer therapy; these shortcomings are largely attributed to the ability of cancer cells to repopulate and metastasize after initial therapies. Compelling evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact in current shortcomings of cancer therapy because they are largely responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the properties and mechanisms underlying CSC resistance to treatments is necessary to improve patient... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:233-42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.26
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:20609  | Downloaded:1346
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  • Review|Open Access

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong, Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:357-64. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.08
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016  | Viewed:40993  | Downloaded:1130
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Tailored nanocarriers and bioconjugates for combating glioblastoma and other brain tumors

    Fatema ELAmrawy, Amr A. Othman, Chris Adkins, Aliaa Helmy, Mohamed I. Nounou
    Worldwide, the incidence of primary brain tumors is on the rise. Unfortunately, noninvasive drug therapy is hampered by poor access of most drugs to the brain due to the insurmountable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanotechnology holds great promise for noninvasive therapy of severe brain diseases. Furthermore, recent bioconjugation strategies have enabled the invasion of the BBB via tailored-designed bioconjugates either with targeting moieties or alterations in the physicochemical and/or the pharmacokinetic parameters of central nervous system (CNS) active pharmaceutical ingredients.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:112-22. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.78
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016  | Viewed:34938  | Downloaded:904
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    The role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in brain tumor metastasis

    Silvia Crespo, Marcus Kind, Alexandre Arcaro
    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathway is involved in a variety of cellular functions and often contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression. It has been recognized that this pathway is frequently activated in the most common central nervous system cancers of adults and children, malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas (MB). In these tumors, the PAM network controls key functions necessary for cell invasion and metastasis, such as cell motility. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of PAM signaling in cell invasion and metastasis in gliomas and MB. Current approaches to... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:80-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.72
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016  | Viewed:32904  | Downloaded:812
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  • Review|Open Access

    Long non-coding RNAs as key regulators of cancer metastasis

    Pratirodh Koirala, De-Hong Zou, Yin-Yuan Mo
    The recent advances in functional genomics have discovered that a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed from the human genome. Increasing evidence further indicates that lncRNAs are important for gene expression during cell differentiation and development through various mechanisms such as nuclear organization, post-transcription regulation, alternative splicing, and epigenetic regulation. Thus, aberrant expression of lncRNAs can cause abnormality in those cellular functions and lead to various pathological conditions. One of such fatal consequences is... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:1-10. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.171829
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016  | Viewed:256016  | Downloaded:795
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  • Review|Open Access

    Targeting Toll-like receptors against cancer

    Bing Du, Qiu-Li Jiang, Joseph Cleveland, Bing-Rong Liu, Dekai Zhang
    The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) about 20 years ago was a remarkable achievement not only in the field of immunology but also in the field of medicine. The TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors which play an important role in immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLRs also recognize danger-associated molecular patterns, which are associated with some diseases such as cancer. Recent evidence shows that TLRs are expressed not only in immune cells but also in tumor cells. The TLRs appear to play a role in tumor progression and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:463-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.62
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016  | Viewed:31898  | Downloaded:756
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  • Review|Open Access

    Patient-derived xenograft models for oncology drug discovery

    Gang Li
    The success of targeted therapies for cancer patients rests on three major components: the right target(s), the right drug and drug combination, and the right patient population. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of disease and in refi ning pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic agents, the attrition rates between target discovery and drug marketing approval have been high, especially in oncology. One of the main reasons underlying this undesirable statistics is believed to be the lack of predictive power of the model systems used in the preclinical... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:8-15. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.152769
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:5810  | Downloaded:676
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Dissecting brain tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and ex vivo

    Michael A. Grotzer, Anuja Neve, Martin Baumgartner
    Local infiltration and distal dissemination of tumor cells hamper efficacy of current treatments against central nervous system (CNS) tumors and greatly influence mortality and therapy-induced long-term morbidity in survivors. A number of in vitro and ex vivo assay systems have been established to better understand the infiltration and metastatic processes, to search for molecules that specifically block tumor cell infiltration and metastatic dissemination and to pre-clinically evaluate their efficaciousness. These systems allow analytical testing of tumor cell viability and motile and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:149-62. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.02
    Published on: 18 May 2016  | Viewed:19987  | Downloaded:671
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Targeting cerebrospinal fluid for discovery of brain cancer biomarkers

    Tarek Shalaby, Federica Achini, Michael A. Grotzer
    Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is a devastating illness with unmet therapeutic needs. Establishing biomarkers that have the potential to guide accurate CNS cancer diagnosis or are helpful in predicting disease progression or therapy response is of great interest. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been extensively targeted for the detection of molecules that might be useful markers for cancer detection. However, so far very few of such markers have found a standardized routine clinical application. This review examines the current scientific knowledge about the biochemical elements in the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:176-87. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.12
    Published on: 18 May 2016  | Viewed:34876  | Downloaded:624
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  • Review|Open Access

    The features of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer

    Gianni Mura, Beatrice Verdelli
    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) from metastasization of Gastric Cancer (GC), either present at first diagnosis of GC or as recurrence, is considered a fatal disease with no hope of definitive cure. Although newer agents like S1 and docetaxel have shown some promise, the median overall survival with the current first line chemotherapy is only 8 to 14 months, and is not greatly improved by adding targeted therapy. A multi-modal approach with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed along the last two decades in order to... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:365-74. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.19
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016  | Viewed:17776  | Downloaded:602
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  • Review|Open Access

    Bacteria in cancer therapy: beyond immunostimulation

    Wheeler Torres, Víctor Lameda, Luis Carlos Olivar, Carla Navarro, Jorge Fuenmayor, Adrián Pérez, Andres Mindiola, Milagros Rojas, María Sofía Martínez, Manuel Velasco, Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermudez
    Currently, conventional therapies in cancer are improving; chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have increased survival significantly. New therapies have arisen with the same goal; immunotherapy has appeared as a promising option in the fight against cancer stimulating the immune system by inducing innate and adaptive responses. These responses include release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, making the immune system capable to eliminate or protect against multiple tumors. Nowadays, many of these therapies are being used in clinical settings, such as checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal anti... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.49
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:9281  | Downloaded:559
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of human papillomaviruses in cancer progression

    Pinar Tulay, Nedime Serakinci
    The importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its role in the progress of cancer have been widely evaluated. The understanding of HPV association with certain cancers, such as cervical cancer, is very well established. A big step forward in the prevention of HPV associated cancers with the use of early detection by screening strategies has also been taken. In the last decade, development of HPV vaccination has reduced the number of cases in HPV infections and infection induced cancers. In this report, we review the HPV pathogenesis and highlight the mechanism of HPV involvement... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:201-13. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.67
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:8373  | Downloaded:552
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metastatic inguinal lymph nodes with two different histological types in a case of carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Mukur Dipi Ray, Shivam Vatsal, Sunil Kumar
    Cancer of unknown primary site is a group of uncommon cancers where patients present with metastatic disease and the primary site is not identified, even after a complete workup to establish the diagnosis. Inguinal metastasis with unknown primary is even more uncommon, and histological type is the most important guiding factor to look for the primary. This report describes the rare situation of inguinal metastasis with an unknown primary site where a combination of squamous and transitional cell carcinoma was found on final histopathology. It highlights the importance of multimodality... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:101-3. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157178
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:26744  | Downloaded:552
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada, Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:313-20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.38
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:8757  | Downloaded:540
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  • Review|Open Access

    Nanocarrier drugs in the treatment of brain tumors

    Tereza Cerna, Marie Stiborova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek, Tomas Eckschlager
    Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of drugs might significantly reduce the dosage and optimize their release properties, increase specificity and bioavailability, improve shelf life, and reduce toxicity. Some nanodrugs are able to overcome the blood-brain barrier that is an obstacle to treatment of brain tumors. Vessels in tumors have abnormal architecture and are highly permeable; moreover, tumors also have poor lymphatic drainage, allowing for accumulation of macromolecules greater than approximately 40 kDa within the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles exploit this feature, known... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:407-16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.95
    Published on: 31 Oct 2016  | Viewed:7997  | Downloaded:535
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil presenting with multiple organ metastases including skin and brain after successful local treatment

    Susovan Banerjee, Dipankar Kundu, Mukti Mukherjee, Pradip Kumar Maiti
    Early stage carcinoma of the tonsil is curable, and the incidence of systemic metastasis is very low and central nervous system involvement is very rare. A patient diagnosed with early stage tonsillar carcinoma treated with chemoradiation was followed by brachytherapy boost. One and half years after completion of treatment, the patient presented with disseminated metastasis to the skin, lung, liver, bone, and brain. He had all favorable prognostic parameters except being a young adult. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:31-3. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.152761
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:7034  | Downloaded:521
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of adenosine in tumor progression: focus on A2B receptor as potential therapeutic target

    Claudia Sorrentino, Silvana Morello
    Adenosine receptors are a family of G-coupled receptors which mediate the anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive effects of adenosine in a damaged tissue. A large number of evidence indicate that the accumulation of adenosine under hypoxic conditions favors tumor progression, helping cancer cells to evade immune responses. Tumor cells and/or lymphoid and myeloid cells can express the adenosine-generating enzyme CD73 and/or A2A receptor, which in turn strongly suppresses an effective T-cell-mediated response, while promotes the activity of suppressive cells such as Treg and myeloid-derived... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:127-38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.29
    Published on: 17 Jul 2017  | Viewed:4923  | Downloaded:513
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  • Review|Open Access

    Risk factors and molecular mechanisms of esophageal cancer: differences between the histologic subtypes

    Masayuki Watanabe
    The two major histologic subtypes of esophageal cancer have different risk factors as well as different molecular mechanisms. In this review, the differences in risk factors and genetic/epigenetic alterations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) will be discussed. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are risk factors for ESCC, while gastroesophageal refl ux, cigarette smoking, and obesity are the main EAC risk factors. Commonly mutated genes of both subtypes are TP53 and PIK3CA. Recent genome-wide analysis revealed that the activation of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:1-7. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153534
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:22824  | Downloaded:497
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  • Review|Open Access

    Growth factor receptors: promising drug targets in cancer

    Snigdha Tiash, Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
    Genetic, epigenetic and somatic changes deregulate the expression of growth factor receptors (GFRs), leading to cancer initiation and progression. Tumor cell growth and survival are orchestrated by clonal expansion and evasion of apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The growth of cells is further supported by angiogenesis and metastasis to distant organs. High expression of GFRs also contributes to the development of resistance. Therefore, therapeutics to target GFRs is a potentially attractive molecular approach to treat cancer more effectively. In this review, we have discussed the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:190-200. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.163151
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:11032  | Downloaded:494
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  • Review|Open Access

    What we have learned from urinary bladder cancer models

    Carina Bernardo, Céu Costa, Carlos Palmeira, Rosário Pinto-Leite, Paula Oliveira, Rui Freitas, Francisco Amado, Lúcio L. Santos
    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is a heterogeneous disease with highly variable clinical outcomes and responses to chemotherapy. Despite some advances in the molecular understanding of UBC, this knowledge still has not been translated to the clinic in terms of improvements in the prognosis and treatment of patients. Suitable urinary bladder tumor models representative of the human disease in terms of histology and behavior are needed to study factors involved in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Further, accurate model systems would facilitate identification of new therapeutic... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:51-8. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.171279
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016  | Viewed:5742  | Downloaded:491
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers. Why? When? How? Suggestions for clinical practice from guidelines and consensus

    Paola Razzore, Giorgio Arnaldi
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NETs) are rare tumors that are increasing in incidence. NETs are characterized by heterogeneous biological behaviour, clinical presentation and course. A sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic circulating biomarker useful for all sites, grading and staging of neuroendocrine tumors is still an unmet need. The aim of this article was to review current neuroendocrine and oncologic scientific society guidelines and position statements, and propose recommendations for the most frequent clinical practice queries on circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:348-56. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.39
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:4930  | Downloaded:468
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Incidence of bone metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa

    Virendra Bhandari
    Aim: This retrospective study was performed to show the incidence of bone metastasis from carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to an increased incidence of tobacco use and poor oral hygiene. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is common and roughly 2.5% of all malignancies that present to our center. Moreover, most patients present at late stages (III/IV) and consequently, survival rates are low. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of such carcinomas is rarely reported worldwide but is more prominent in parts of India. Methods:... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:27-30. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153444
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:10894  | Downloaded:445
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Management of hepatic metastases of well/moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract

    Anna La Salvia, Stefano Partelli, Marco Tampellini, Domenico Tamburrino, Massimo Falconi, Giorgio V. Scagliotti, Maria Pia Brizzi
    In neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), liver metastases (LM) represent the most crucial prognostic factor, irrespective of the primary tumor site. At diagnosis, about 65-95% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show hepatic metastasis. Management strategies of LM are heterogeneous and range from systemic therapy to liver-directed procedures. The type of systemic therapy used is dependent on the grade and proliferation of the tumor and includes somatostatin analogues, interferon, m-Tor and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Angiographic liver-directed techniques,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:294-303. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.37
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016  | Viewed:7172  | Downloaded:416
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Real-time quantitative PCR array to study drug-induced changes of gene expression in tumor cell lines

    Stefano Amatori, Giuseppe Persico, Mirco Fanelli
    Aim: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is still the “gold standard” for quantitative analysis of mRNA and the study of differentially expressed genes. Methods: The authors describe a RT-qPCR array that exploits SYBR Green dye-based detection to perform reliable gene expression analysis on 41 genes involved in several pathways linked to DNA damage response, cell cycle progression, cellular senescence, and programmed cell death. To validate the RT-qPCR array, the authors investigated changes of the gene expression profile of HeLa cells treated with two... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:90-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.22
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:7719  | Downloaded:413
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Neuroendocrine tumors: current therapies, notch signaling, and cancer stem cells

    Judy S. Crabtree, Lucio Miele
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies all derived from neuroendocrine cell lineage, affecting many different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the endocrine pancreas, the thyroid, the skin and the respiratory tract. These tumors as a group are very heterogeneous, with varying characteristics attributed to each tissue of origin and tumor subtype. The pathogenesis of the different subtypes of NETs is not fully understood, but recent studies suggest the Notch signaling pathway may be dysregulated in these tumors either by under or... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:279-93. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.30
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2518  | Downloaded:374
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  • Review|Open Access

    A primer on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on neoantigen vaccines

    Taku A. Tokuyasu, Jian-Dong Huang
    Cancer immunotherapy has now been conclusively shown to be capable of producing durable responses for a substantial number of patients. Adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint blockade therapies in particular both demonstrate that antigen-specific immune responses can be dramatically effective, even in previously refractory late stage disease. Such developments, together with advances in technology, have strongly encouraged revisiting the concept of neoantigen vaccines. Here we introduce basic ideas in the field to allow investigators from diverse backgrounds to understand these developments,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.52
    Published on: 18 Jan 2018  | Viewed:5783  | Downloaded:371
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Prostate cancer exosomes as modulators of the tumor microenvironment

    Alex P. Shephard, Vincent Yeung, Aled Clayton, Jason P. Webber
    Researchers are currently trying to understand why some men with prostate cancer go on to develop aggressive disease whilst others maintain slow growing tumors. Although endogenous genetic anomalies within the tumor cell are important, the prevailing view is that the tissue microenvironment as a whole is the determinant factor. Many studies have focussed on the role of soluble factors in modulating the nature of the tumor microenvironment. There is however a growing interest in the role of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, as regulators of disease progression. A variety of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:288-301. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.32
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:6849  | Downloaded:365
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Oxidative stress and breast cancer biomarkers: the case of the cytochrome P450 2E1

    Subir Singh, Ramkumar Rajendran, Kengo Kuroda, Emiko Isogai, Marija Krstic-Demonacos, Constantinos Demonacos
    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the cytochrome P450 2E1, which is the most efficient CYP450 family member in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), on cellular energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and therefore the effects of CYP2E1 on breast carcinogenesis. Methods: The estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used as experimental system to estimate ROS generation in these cells overexpressing CYP2E1 and treated with the glycolytic inhibitors 3-bromopyruvate or 2-deoxyglucose in the presence or absence of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:268-76. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.42
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016  | Viewed:4721  | Downloaded:362
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance - implications for future treatments of prostate cancer

    Fiona M. Frame, Amanda R. Noble, Sandra Klein, Hannah F. Walker, Rakesh Suman, Richard Kasprowicz, Vin M. Mann, Matt S. Simms, Norman J. Maitland
    Aim: To develop new therapies for prostate cancer, disease heterogeneity must be addressed. This includes patient variation, multi-focal disease, cellular heterogeneity, genomic changes and epigenetic modification. This requires more representative models to be used in more innovative ways. Methods: This study used a panel of cell lines and primary prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from patient tissue. Several assays were used; alamar blue, colony forming assays, γH2AX and Ki67 immunofluorescence and comet assays. Ptychographic quantitative phase imaging (QPI), a label-free imaging... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:302-14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.34
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:7145  | Downloaded:351
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular and cellular aspects of extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia

    Javad Mohammadiasl, Abbas Khosravi, Mohammad Shahjahani, Shirin Azizidoost, Najmaldin Saki
    The myeloid extramedullary tumor is a solid tumor formed by infiltration of immature myeloid cells in various tissues of the body. This tumor is also identified as chloroma or myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS is a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurring at presentation or during treatment or relapse. MS is associated with multiple chromosomal abnormalities and molecular mutations since patients with these disorders bear a high potential for MS manifestation. There is a high incidence of extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in AML. AML patients with EMI have a worse prognosis than patients... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:44-50. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.167230
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016  | Viewed:11426  | Downloaded:350
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Molecular insights into colorectal cancer stem cell regulation by environmental factors

    Daisuke Izumi, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yuji Miyamoto, Hideo Baba
    Colorectal cancer remains a significant cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, mainly because of tumor relapse and metastases. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the main cause of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, as well as being responsible for distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves possess innate abilities for self-renewal and differentiation, the environment surrounding CSCs provides oxygen, nutrients and secreted factors, and also supports angiogenesis, thus it's responsible for maintaining their CSC properties. Furthermore, extensive investigations have... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:156-62. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.165532
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:7354  | Downloaded:340
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prognostic factors and efficacy of GDP-R therapy in refractory/relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphomas not eligible for high-dose therapy

    Francesco Ghio, Giulia Cervetti, Nadia Cecconi, Matteo Pelosini, Sara Galimberti, Riccardo Morganti, Paola Ferrari, Andrea Nicolini, Mario Petrini
    Aim: The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) in a cohort of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) not eligible for high-dose therapy (HDT) treated with gemcitabine in association with dexamethasone, cisplatin and rituximab (GDP-R) protocol. The secondary aim was to identify the prognostic factors impacting OS and TTF. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCLs treated with GDP-R. Results: Overall response rate (ORR) was 48.8%; complete response 15/45... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:59-63. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.172291
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016  | Viewed:6415  | Downloaded:328
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation and gastrointestinal cancer

    Satoshi Ida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been studied extensively. Chronic inflammation is able to trigger cellular events to promote malignant transformation of normal epithelial cells in the GI tract to cancer. Host inflammation responses in carcinogenesis are through multiple mechanisms such as reactive oxygen and nitration species from mononuclear phagocytes and leukocytes, immune response and pro-infl ammatory cytokines. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:138-43. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.166994
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5841  | Downloaded:327
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  • Review|Open Access

    DNA damage-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and its roles in cancer progression

    Wei Wang, Arul M. Mani, Zhao-Hui Wu
    DNA damage is a vital challenge to cell homeostasis. Cellular responses to DNA damage (DDR) play essential roles in maintaining genomic stability and survival, whose failure could lead to detrimental consequences such as cancer development and aging. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that plays critical roles in cellular stress response. Along with p53, NF-kB modulates transactivation of a large number of genes which participate in various cellular processes involved in DDR. Here the authors summarize the recent progress in understanding DNA damage response... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:45-59. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.03
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:8967  | Downloaded:320
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunity and therapy using hyperthermia with immunotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery

    Yohsuke Yagawa, Keishi Tanigawa, Yasunobu Kobayashi, Masakazu Yamamoto
    Hyperthermia is a type of medical modality for cancer treatment using the biological effect of artificially induced heat. Even though the intrinsic effects of elevated body temperature in cancer tissues are poorly understood, increasing the temperature of the body has been recognized as a popular therapeutic method for tumorous lesions as well as infectious diseases since ancient times. Recently accumulated evidence has shown that hyperthermia amplifies immune responses in the body against cancer while decreasing the immune suppression and immune escape of cancer. It also shows that... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:218-30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.35
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:3406  | Downloaded:316
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  • Review|Open Access

    Update on targeted therapy and immune therapy for gastric cancer, 2018

    Yuki Kiyozumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Kohei Yamashita, Yuki Koga, Naoya Yoshida, Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most common cancers and serious health problems worldwide. For unresectable or metastatic advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy treatment is first selected. Although chemotherapy has improved survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. In recent years, some therapies targeting biological molecules have been reported to prolong the survival of patients with AGC. Since trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets HER2, was established as standard therapy for unresectable GC in a HER2-positive... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:31. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.77
    Published on: 28 Jun 2018  | Viewed:2947  | Downloaded:313
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Brain tumor surgery: supplemental intra-operative imaging techniques and future challenges

    Telmo Augusto Barba Belsuzarri, Raphael Martinelli Anson Sangenis, João Flavio Mattos Araujo
    Modern brain tumor surgery stands in the pillar of maximum safe resection. Tumor borders are always challenging, especially infiltration zones in malignant brain tumors. Novel technologies are designed for a better delineation and to increase the extent of resection (EOR) in brain tumor surgery, such as: cortical and sub-cortical mapping strategies with somatosensory-evoked potentials, awake stimulation mapping and cortical/sub-cortical stimulation for motor pathways, important for resection in eloquent areas; intra-operative imaging as functional and intra-operative magnetic resonance... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:70-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.172249
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016  | Viewed:5583  | Downloaded:309
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Papaya black seeds have beneficial anticancer effects on PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    Khalid S. Alotaibi, Haiwen Li, Reza Rafi, Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: The study investigated the effect of papaya seeds on prostate cancer (PC) using PC-3 cell line because papaya seeds have effects on the male reproductive system notably decreasing sperm concentration, motility, and viability, leading to azoospermia after short-to-long-term treatment. Methods: The black seeds from yellow (ripe) papaya and white seeds from green (unripe) papaya were harvested and then extracted in water, 80% methanol, and hexane. The cytotoxic effects of seeds extracts were determined using a WST-1 proliferation assay. The amount of total polyphenols was determined using... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:161-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.33
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:8845  | Downloaded:301
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in gastrointestinal cancer

    Masaaki Iwatsuki, Junji Kurashige, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Kosumi, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are originated from the primary tumor lesion into the blood stream. CTCs could lead to recurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, even after a curative resection and colonizing in the distant organs to facilitate tumor distant metastasis; however, it has been challenging in clinic to detect CTCs for a long time, such as detection methodology or molecular markers for identification of CTCs. This review discussed the recent technical advances and biomarkers in the detection of CTCs and the molecular mechanism of CTC in cancer progression and metastasis.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:130-7. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.165534
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:5705  | Downloaded:299
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current trends in gastric cancer treatment in Europe

    Satoshi Kamiya, Ioannis Rouvelas, Mats Lindblad, Magnus Nilsson
    Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths, despite the gradual decrease of its incidence in the West. Minimally invasive procedures, such as endoscopic resection and laparoscopic gastrectomy, have been successfully introduced in European high-volume centres, in the treatment of early gastric cancer. Regarding advanced, localized gastric cancer a number of prospective trials have been completed in search of better therapeutic options, aiming to optimize the efficacy vs. adverse effect ratio. From the results of these prospective randomized trials, the therapeutic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:35. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.76
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1491  | Downloaded:291
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    A new twist to neurotransmitter receptors and cancer

    Hildegard M. Schuller
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:71-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.18
    Published on: 28 Apr 2017  | Viewed:11093  | Downloaded:288
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer: a new kid on the block

    Andrea Spallanzani, Fabio Gelsomino, Francesco Caputo, Chiara Santini, Kalliopi Andrikou, Giulia Orsi, Margherita Rimini, Stefania Pipitone, Laura Riggi, Camilla Bardasi, Massimiliano Salati, Stefano Cascinu
    In the last few years, the success of anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 drugs in solid cancers treatment and the advances in molecular biology have provided new potential treatment strategies for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, only patients with mismatch repair deficiency seem to benefit from immunotherapy and they represent a small subset of the metastatic population. New ongoing studies focus on converting an immune ignorant tumour into an inflamed one by combination therapies and on introducing an immunotherapeutic approach in earlier stages of disease (neoadjuvant and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:28. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.31
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:2543  | Downloaded:287
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Insights into mechanisms of tumor dissemination from circulating tumor cell lines of small cell lung cancer

    Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
    Despite the fact that the majority of cancer patients succumb to metastatic disease, most aspects of tumor metastasis are not understood in detail at present. Cell biologic steps of dissemination are difficult to characterize in human tumors and research is in large part confined to cell line and experimental animal studies. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), intravasation of malignant cells, dissemination as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and eventually mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) at distal sites are steps believed to be involved in metastasis. Small cell lung cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:446-52. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.57
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016  | Viewed:16853  | Downloaded:286
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Malignant ascites with omental metastasis: a rare event in prostate cancer

    Rajeev Saini, Chandragouda Dodagoudar, Vineet Talwar, Sajjan Singh
    Prostate cancer is the most common type of male malignancy in the world and approximately 10-20% of prostate cancer shows a metastatic disease at initial diagnosis commonly to the bones, vertebrae, ribs, long bones, and skull. However, prostate cancer metastasis to the omentum with malignant ascites is extremely uncommon. In this study, we report such a case, which also highlights a repeatedly negative ascetic fl uid cytology even with multiple omental metastatic nodules. The purpose of this case report is to provide awareness to physicians for this rare occurrence. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:34-5. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.152767
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:5254  | Downloaded:280
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Gemcitabine followed by radiotherapy in treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas

    Maha El-Naggar, Mervat Omar, Ahmed Elgeriany, Godefridus J. Peters, Amina Mostafa, Samir Shehata
    Aim: High-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor median overall survival (OS). The standard treatment after surgery is temozolomide and radiotherapy (RTH). Patients with unmethylated methylguanine-methyltransferase promoter (MGMT) have no or little benefit from temozolomide and are eligible for alternative therapies. Gemcitabine is a good radiosensitizer. We aimed to evaluate the combination of gemcitabine with RTH in newly diagnosed GBM. Methods: The study was a prospective phase II study. Eligible patients were required to have histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma or GBM.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:188-94. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.15
    Published on: 18 May 2016  | Viewed:3804  | Downloaded:278
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  • Review|Open Access

    Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Sundaram Viswanath, Abhishek Pathak, Amul Kapoor, Anvesh Rathore, Bhupendra Nath Kapur
    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic profile of lung cancer has changed... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:214-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.88
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:1361  | Downloaded:276
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The association of the uterine motion with bladder volume during radiotherapy in gynecological malignancies

    Bhandari Virendra, Mutneja Abhinav, Gurjar Omprakash, Saadvik Raghuram, Bagdare Priyusha, Gupta Krishnlal, Singh Kanchan
    Aim: This study was performed to assess the extent of interfraction uterine motion during radiotherapy for cervical cancer and uterine body carcinoma while maintaining a strict bladder filling protocol. Methods: Twenty-four patients with cervical cancer or uterine body carcinoma who were treated on a linear accelerator, were recruited. During the course of external beam radiotherapy, cone beam computed tomographic scans were taken, once at the start of treatment and then weekly until the completion of the radiotherapy course. Patients were instructed to maintain a strict bladder filling... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:139-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.68
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016  | Viewed:4872  | Downloaded:271
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Brain infiltration by cancer cells: different roads to the same target?

    Mayra Paolillo, Sergio Schinelli
    Brain infiltration by cancer cells is a complex process in which metastatic cells detached from the primary tumor must firstly survive in the blood flow, cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and finally colonize a foreign microenvironment. The cells that successfully bypass the cellular barriers surrounding capillaries, proliferate to form micrometastasis and trigger the angiogenetic process. Different molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the metastatic behaviour of solid tumors that infiltrate brain tissue; in this review the most recent findings concerning mechanisms and genes... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:90-100. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.172661
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016  | Viewed:2703  | Downloaded:270
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Epigenetic changes in gastrointestinal cancers

    Hironobu Shigaki, Yoshifumi Baba, Kazuto Harada, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifi cation, loss of genome imprinting, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are associated with human carcinogenesis. Among them, DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process to modulate gene expression. In cancer cells, altered DNA methylation includes hypermethylation of site-specific CpG island promoter and global DNA hypo-methylation. Detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation has been applied to the clinic to stratify risk in cancer development, detect early cancer and predict clinical outcomes.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:113-22. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.166991
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:6961  | Downloaded:270
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Cancer metabolism in gastrointestinal cancer

    Hiroshi Sawayama, Nobutomo Miyanari, Hideo Baba
    Cancer cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, anaerobic glycolysis and upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recent genetic and metabolic analyses have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of genes that are involved in the alteration of cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis. Hypoxic induced factor 1 regulates the reciprocal relationship between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and p53 also modulates the balance between the glycolytic pathway and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria function in cancer differs from that in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:172-82. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.165533
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3769  | Downloaded:266
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  • Review|Open Access

    Urothelial bladder cancer progression: lessons learned from the bench

    Julieta P. Afonso, Rui Freitas, Francisco Lobo, António Morais, Jorge Oliveira, Teresina Amaro, Rui M. Reis, Fátima M. Baltazar, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, Lúcio L. Santos
    Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is an intricate malignancy with a variable natural history and clinical behavior. Despite developments in diagnosis/prognosis refi nement and treatment modalities, the recurrence rate is high, and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive UBC commonly leads to metastasis. Moreover, patients with muscle-invasive or extra-vesical disease often fail the standard chemotherapy treatment, and overall survival rates are poor. Thus, UBC remains a challenge in the oncology fi eld, representing an ideal candidate for research on biomarkers that could identify... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:57-66. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157377
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8598  | Downloaded:263
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Lung cancer biopsy dislodges tumor cells into circulating blood

    Noriyoshi Sawabata, Tomotaka Kitamura, Yuko Nitta, Tomoyo Taketa, Takeshi Ohno, Tatsuya Fukumori, Takeru Hyakutake, Takahito Nakamura
    Aim: A “seed” of lung cancer metastasis is circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which may be dislodged from a tumor during biopsy. This possibility was assessed among patients who underwent lung tumor biopsy using flexible fiber-topic bronchoscopy (FFB). Methods: The study involved six patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent FFB biopsy to diagnose a lesion pathologically (5 males and 1 female, median age 63 years, six adenocarcinomas, of four clinical-stage IA, one stage IB, and one stage IIIA), CTCs were extracted from the peripheral vein blood at pre-FFB and at post-FFB using a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:16-20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.67
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3172  | Downloaded:259
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Withaferin A targeting both cancer stem cells and metastatic cancer stem cells in the UP-LN1 carcinoma cell model

    Lai-Lei Ting, Andy Shau-Bin Chou, Chin-Hsuan Hsieh, Shih-Chieh Hsiung, See-Tong Pang, Shuen-Kuei Liao
    Aim: As our understanding of cancer stem cell (CSC) biology improves, search for inhibitory agents of CSCs and metastatic CSCs (mCSCs) positive for CXCR4 is warranted. Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide extracted from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects through multiple mechanisms. Whether WA could selectively target CSCs, mCSCs, or non-CSCs of a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoma tumor remains unclear. Methods: Side-population (SP) analysis, flow cytometric phenotyping and sorting, non-invasive imaging in conjunction with xenotransplantation, and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:29-40. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.172008
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016  | Viewed:6237  | Downloaded:258
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  • Review|Open Access

    The farnesoid X receptor and colon cancer

    Guofeng Xie, Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death, primarily because of limited therapeutic options for those with advanced disease. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Besides its prominent role in bile acid synthesis, and lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, recent data indicate that FXR also plays a key role in regulating intestinal cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Here, we review the role of FXR as a tumor suppressor in CRC, with particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:24-8. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.164288
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016  | Viewed:1547  | Downloaded:253
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Effects of Gas1 on gliomas: a review on current preclinical studies

    Jose Segovia, Elizabeth Bautista, Manuel Lara-Lozano
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor. Its prognosis remains very poor, despite the use of combined treatments such as surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy. The major limitations for the treatment of GBM are its high invasiveness, tumor recurrence and resistance to treatments. Therefore, gene therapy appears as a relevant strategy for its treatment. Thus, we have investigated the use of growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) for the treatment of GBM. Gas1 is a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits glioma growth by inducing arrest and apoptosis of tumor... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:101-11. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.76
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016  | Viewed:5269  | Downloaded:249
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Profiling of circulating tumor cells in liquid biopsies from metastatic cancer patients

    Pravin D. Potdar, Keerti Sen
    Aim: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are crucial to tumor metastasis and valuable for prediction of clinical outcome in patients with solid tumors. Here, the authors aimed to establish a method for enumeration and characterization of CTCs from liquid biopsies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated from blood samples from patients with metastatic cancer using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and cultured to isolate and enumerate CTCs. Cultured CTCs were morphologically characterized by light and phase contrast microscopy. The tumorigenicity of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:6-15. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.53
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3241  | Downloaded:248
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Withania somnifera extract reduces the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and inhibits cytokines associated with metastasis

    Kamel F. Khazal, Donald L. Hill
    Aim: The aim was to examine the anti-proliferative effect of a Withania somnifera (WS) root extract in cell cultures and nude mouse xenografts of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Methods: WS root extract was used to treat tumor cells at concentrations up to 100 μg and for nude mouse experiments, the mice received daily WS at 300 mg/kg by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Results: The WS extract reduced viability of MDA-MB-231 cells by 75% and 88% after exposure of the cells to 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively, compared to vehicle-treated controls. WS extract caused a dose-dependent increase in the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:94-100. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157601
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:8365  | Downloaded:246
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  • Review|Open Access

    Using circulating tumor cells to advance precision medicine in prostate cancer

    Giuseppe Galletti, Daniel Worroll, David M. Nanus, Paraskevi Giannakakou
    The field of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment has seen many emerging technologies in recent years, which have resulted in the identification and monitoring of clinically relevant, CTC-based biomarkers that can be analyzed routinely without invasive procedures. Several molecular platforms have been used to investigate the molecular profile of the disease, from high throughput gene expression analyses down to single cell biological dissection. The established presence of CTC heterogeneity nevertheless constitutes a challenge for cell isolation as the several subpopulations can... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:190-205. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.45
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:4329  | Downloaded:245
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  • Review|Open Access

    Muscarinic receptor signaling and colon cancer progression

    Guofeng Xie, Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Due to the lack of effective treatments, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Emerging evidence supports the observation that muscarinic receptor (MR) signaling plays a critical role in growth and progression of CRC. MR activation by acetylcholine and bile acids results in transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and post-EGFR signal transduction that enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, the authors review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MR-mediated CRC... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:195-200. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.05
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:8910  | Downloaded:245
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    An unusual case of encapsulated papillary carcinoma of breast

    Kriti Chauhan, Monika Garg
    Intracystic (encapsulated) papillary carcinoma of breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. It is usually a low-grade tumor showing estrogen, progesterone positivity. The authors report an unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma showing high nuclear grade, brisk mitosis, and necrosis with triple negativity for estrogen, progesterone, and Her-2/neu receptors, as well as negative axillary lymph nodes. Such cases need to be reported to increase awareness so that they will be managed conservatively, avoiding any overtreatment despite being high grade and triple negative. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:224-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.63
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:12496  | Downloaded:244
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Neuroendocrine tumors: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex disease

    Rossana Berardi
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:277-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.50
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2670  | Downloaded:240
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  • Review|Open Access

    Genomic heterogeneity meets cellular energetics: crosstalk between the mitochondria and the cell cycle

    Erica L. Herrera, Seham Z. Azzam, Madison C. Berger, Laura A. Diaz-Martinez
    Changes in cellular energetics and genomic instability are two characteristics of cancers that have been studied independently. Evidence of cross-talk between mitochondria function and nuclear function has started to emerge, suggesting that these pathways can influence one another. Here we review recent evidence that links the mitochondria and the cell cycle. This evidence indicates bidirectional cross-talk where mitochondria function can regulate the cell cycle and induce genomic instability, and conversely, the cell cycle machinery regulates mitochondria function. Implications for this... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.35
    Published on: 6 Aug 2018  | Viewed:958  | Downloaded:236
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Sunitinib effectiveness and safety as first line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in the Costa Rican population

    Esteban Gonzalez, Silvia Alfaro, Allan Ramos-Esquivel, Denis Ulises Landaverde
    Aim: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are part of the armamentarium to treat metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC). Costa Rica has approved sunitinib in the first line setting. The authors conducted a retrospective study to address the effectiveness and safety profile of sunitinib in our population in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Methods: The authors analyzed all patients who were treated with sunitinib diagnosed with mRCC in the three National Hospitals (Hospital Mexico, Hospital San Juan de Dios, and Hospital Calderon Guardia) from February 2007 to June... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:396-401. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.27
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016  | Viewed:3436  | Downloaded:236
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    MicroRNAs in gastrointestinal cancer: a novel biomarker and its clinical application

    Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers remain one of the most common malignancies and are the major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Significant advancements have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis and pathology of GI cancers, but high mortality rates, an unfavorable prognosis, and lack of clinical predictive biomarkers provide an impetus to investigate novel diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for GI cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-24 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, thus playing an... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:144-55. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.161617
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3375  | Downloaded:236
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Medical therapy for advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

    Mariangela Torniai, Silvia Rinaldi, Francesca Morgese, Giulia Ricci, Azzurra Onofri, Christian Grohé, Rossana Berardi
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a spectrum of rare neoplasms arising in different organism sites. Depending on the site of onset, they also can be distinguished using lab exams (secreting vs. nonsecreting), clinical symptoms (functioning vs. nonfunctioning), behavioral, morphological characteristics (tumor cells’ architectural growth patterns, mitotic and Ki-67 index, presence of necrosis), and grade of cellular differentiation. The aim of this review is to focus on the main signaling pathways targeted by medical treatments of advanced sporadic gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:329-40. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.47
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:5527  | Downloaded:234
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment|Open Access

    Curcumin sensitizes quiescent leukemic cells to antimitotic drug 5-fluorouracil by inducing proliferative responses in them

    Anagha Gardane, Mariyah Poonawala, Anuradha Vaidya
    Long-term quiescence or dormancy is a fundamental feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are genetically identical to the malignant clone but constitute the only cells with tumor propagation potential within the overall tumor population. These quiescent cells show significant resistance to radiation and antiproliferative chemotherapy due to distinctive properties that seem to be related to their stem cell-like character. Hence, successful anticancer therapy must consist of approaches that can target not only the differentiated cancer cells, but also the CSCs. Using serum-starved KG1a cell... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:245-52. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.11
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:4189  | Downloaded:234
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Is pregnancy wise after 12-year chemotherapy of chronic myeloid leukemia woman?

    Umesh Das, Gurulingaiah Venkata Giri, Kuntejowdahalli Lakshmaiah, Suresh Tagarapura, Lokanatha Dasappa, Govind Babu, Linu Abraham Jacob, Suresh Babu
    Diagnosis of leukemia during pregnancy is a dramatic event that poses challenges to the pregnant woman, the family, and physicians. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) comprises up to 10% of pregnancy-associated leukemia. There is no specific guideline for CML management in pregnant women. This study reported a case of successful pregnancy after 12 years of chemotherapy including tyrosine kinase inhibitor for CML. Pregnancy after 12 years of continuous chemotherapy is rare, which also led a challenge for medical oncologists and patient as well. This study described the assessment of the risk... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:208-10. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.158433
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:2304  | Downloaded:232
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastroenterological cancer

    Hirohisa Okabe, Kosuke Mima, Seiya Saito, Hiromitsu Hayashi, Katsunori Imai, Hidetoshi Nitta, Daisuke Hashimoto, Akira Chikamoto, Takatoshi Ishiko, Toru Beppu, Hideo Baba
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was first reported as an essential process in embryonic cells and later showed that cancer cells, regardless of the context, exhibited a similar phenomenon that was crucial for tumor progression. Epithelial cells lose their adhesive characteristic capacity which is necessary for their functions but gain a mesenchymal phenotype. This change from epithelial to the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells makes it difficult to understand the mechanism underlying cancer biology and tumor progression. A number of transcription factors involved in tumor cell... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:183-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.165118
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3180  | Downloaded:230
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  • Review|Open Access

    Cytogenetic and molecular basis of BCR-ABL myelodysplastic syndrome: diagnosis and prognostic approach

    Mostafa Paridar, Omid Kiani Ghalesardi, Mohammad Seghatoleslami, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Abbas Khosravi, Najmaldin Saki
    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a heterogeneous group of blood disorders generally afflicting older people. Several genetic factors have been reported from these patients that have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. BCR-ABL1 is a genetic factor that has occasionally been reported in some studies. This review attempts to characterize MDS patients reported to harbor this fusion and to assess the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic potential of BCR-ABL1 fusionin MDS patients. This review showed that BCR-ABL fusion has been reported in 22... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:38-44. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.61
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2695  | Downloaded:228
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current challenges and opportunities in treating hypoxic prostate tumors

    Declan J. McKenna, Rachel Errington, Klaus Pors
    Hypoxia is a well-established characteristic of prostate tumors and is now recognised as a major contributory factor to both tumor progression and increased resistance to therapy. One strategy to target hypoxic tumor cells is the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs), which are activated in low oxygen environments. Several HAPs have been developed but despite encouraging results from preclinical studies many of these have performed disappointingly in clinical trials. In the developing era of precision medicine, it is clear that more strategic deployment of these agents is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:11. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.54
    Published on: 1 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2697  | Downloaded:225
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Management of choroidal metastasis using external beam radiotherapy: a retrospective study and review of the literature

    Zakaria Ahmed Youbi, Enachescu Ciprian, Caraivan Ionela, Bennani Zineb, Khounigere Majdouline, Kotzki Léa, Pialat Pierre-Marie, Sesques Pierre, Yossi Séna
    Aim: Choroidal metastases are rare in the evolution of solid cancers and constitute exceptional metastatic sites involving functional visual prognosis. The authors conducted a retrospective study to determine the interest of external radiotherapy for the treatment of choroidal metastases. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 28 patients with choroidal metastases who had breast (n = 15), lung (n = 9), ovarian (n = 1), kidney (n = 1), prostate (n = 1) cancer or carcinoma with unknown primitive at the moment of the diagnosis (n = 1). The median age was 58 years (extremes: 34-71 years).... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:105-10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.07
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2898  | Downloaded:221
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: clinical criteria for treatment strategy

    Agnese Savini, Rossana Berardi, Paola Mazzanti, Miriam Caramanti, Matteo Santoni, Mariagrazia De Lisa, Francesca Morgese, Silvia Rinaldi, Mariangela Torniai, Ilaria Fiordoliva, Azzurra Onofri, Stefano Cascinu
    Aim: Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of human cancer deaths worldwide, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most frequent histologic subtypes. The aim of our study was to analyze clinical factors potentially affecting the overall outcome of advanced lung SCC patients. Methods: A series of 72 consecutive patients with advanced SCC undergoing chemotherapy at our institution between January 2007 and July 2013 were eligible for our analysis. Results: By univariate analysis, a better overall survival (OS) was related to response to fi rst-line chemotherapy: median OS were... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:90-3. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157974
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6846  | Downloaded:219
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Trends in clinical use of targeted therapy for gastrointestinal cancers

    Kojiro Eto, Masayuki Watanabe
    Targeted drugs therapies that block the molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of gastro-intestinal (GI) cancers have recently gained considerable attention. In addition to agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor, the multi-kinase inhibitor, and regorafenib have also become available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Currently, trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), in combination with cytotoxic drugs is considered as the standard treatment for... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:163-71. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.166997
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:4272  | Downloaded:210
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Controversies in the treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors

    Maria Rinzivillo, Francesco Panzuto, Gianfranco Delle Fave
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; the gap between these rates is due to the relatively long survival time of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Recently, more therapeutic options have become available, but criteria for defining timing, priority and sequence of different therapeutic options are still debated. This review offers an overview of pancreatic and small bowel NETs, critically underlining the issues that still... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:304-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.40
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2048  | Downloaded:209
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as rapidly growing sternal mass: an unusual presentation

    Rahul S. Kulkarni, Asha S. Anand, Apurva A. Patel, Sandip A. Shah
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. The most frequent sites of metastases are lungs, regional lymph nodes, adrenals and bones. However, an isolated sternal metastasis from HCC as an initial presentation has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old man presented with a progressively increasing mass over the anterior chest wall. On investigations, it was found to be arising from the sternum. Histopathology was suggestive of metastatic HCC, later confirmed by the presence of a 9 cm × 7 cm mass in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan and a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:41-3. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.169643
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016  | Viewed:19872  | Downloaded:201
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells in gastric cancer

    Kenichi Nakamura, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Junji Kurashige, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a lot of attention as a novel biomarker for cancer research in past decades. CTCs infiltrate the bloodstream derived from the primary tumor, and are significantly involved in cancer metastasis and recurrence. Although clinical applications have been challenging owing to the difficulties of CTC identification, recent development of technology for specific enrichment and detection of CTCs contributes to diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, CTC analyses will shed new light on the biological mechanisms of cancer progression and metastasis. A number... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:32. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.78
    Published on: 5 Jul 2018  | Viewed:783  | Downloaded:200
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    EGFR mutation--a commonly neglected mutation in squamous cell lung carcinoma

    Rajeev Saini, Ullas Batra, Akhil Jain, Chaturbhuj Agrawal
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Advances in molecular biology have unveiled various targetable mutations with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) being most common. EGFR testing is recommended for all locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma lungs but recommendation in squamous histology is uncertain. However, just on the basis of histology, EGFR testing should not be withheld in patients diagnosed as squamous cell cancer on small biopsy, in females, never smokers and Asians. We report two cases with squamous cell lung cancer diagnosed on small... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:253-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.07
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:2670  | Downloaded:200
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Overview of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma: recent findings by next generation sequencing

    Yu Imamura, Ryuma Tokunaga, Kenichi Nakamura, Hideo Baba, Masayuki Watanabe
    Esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma is commonly treated as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and has dramatically increased in Western countries for several decades. The similar trend has been observed in Asian countries (not in China). Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a widely accepted precursor of EAC. Recent advances of next-generation sequencing could provide researchers with a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the carcinogenesis of EAC. In this review, we have summarized the recently reported major genetic and epigenetic alterations in both BE and EAC. Sonic... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:123-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.161620
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:2956  | Downloaded:198
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment|Open Access

    Introduction to the Special Issue “Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment”

    Ira-Ida Skvortsova
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:231-2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.35
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:1353  | Downloaded:197
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment|Open Access

    The quintessential quiescence of cancer stem cells: a struggle towards better treatment

    Anuradha Vaidya
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:243-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.10
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016  | Viewed:1199  | Downloaded:196
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Evaluation of anti-metastatic effect of chitosan nanoparticles on esophageal cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Pravin D. Potdar, Aashutosh U. Shetti
    Aim: Esophageal cancer is one of the major types of cancers, causing death of approximately 5% of all cancer deaths. This is due, in large part, to both relatively ineffectual and unavailable treatment. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy against esophageal cancer, it is important to target metastatic genes. In the present study, we have used a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell line derived from culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient to see whether chitosan nanoparticles (Ch-Np) treatment can modulate the metastatic... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:259-67. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.25
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016  | Viewed:3355  | Downloaded:195
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Immunological aspect of the liver and metastatic uveal melanoma

    Mizue Terai, Michael J. Mastrangleo, Takami Sato
    Uveal (eye) melanoma is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults. Despite optimal treatments for primary uveal melanoma, up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis, often in the liver. Once hepatic metastasis develops, the survival of patients is generally short and currently available treatments fail to show meaningful improvement of survival. Recent development of immune checkpoint blockades revolutionized immunotherapy for metastatic cutaneous (skin) melanoma. Unfortunately, metastatic uveal melanoma is unresponsive to this approach, thus there is an unmet... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:231-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.39
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2995  | Downloaded:192
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with hypoglycemia and elevated insulin-like growth factor II: a case report

    Roberta Modica, Antonella Di Sarno, Annamaria Colao, Antongiulio Faggiano
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) can be associated with different clinical syndromes. Insulinoma is the most common functioning pNET characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The authors report a case of a man presenting with hypoglycemia and biochemical features of insulinoma. A pancreatic lesion was found and growth hormone (GH) deficiency was also diagnosed associated with an empty sella present on the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. The disappearance of hypoglycemia and normalization of GH secretion after surgical resection of the pancreatic lesion, revealed a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:345-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.44
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2595  | Downloaded:192
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  • Review|Open Access

    Roles of dysregulated Notch pathway and small DNA tumor viruses in cancer initiation and progression

    Anthony G. Clementz, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
    Notch pathway is a major determinant of cell fate, and research within the last 30 years has shown dysfunctions within this pathway in the majority of solid tumors and leukemias. The molecular mechanisms causing aberrant expression of Notch in cancer are still partially known. Mesotheliomas, breast, and cervical cancers are among the cancer types for which the dysregulation of Notch has been reported together with the association of simian virus 40 (SV40) or human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. In mesotheliomas and cervical cancer, there is clear evidence that these viruses cause and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:11-23. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.171982
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016  | Viewed:2954  | Downloaded:192
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Double tracer PET/CT: what is it and what does it mean?

    Mattia Pellicciari, Silvia Ortolani, Elisabetta Grego, Giampaolo Tortora, Sara Cingarlini
    68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT is a recommended imaging modality in the workup of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), which shows high diagnostic sensitivity and is a strong predictor of successful somatostatin receptor directed treatments. Although not routinely recommended, reliable evidences show that 18F-FDG PET/CT can provide complementary information in this setting with the ability to discriminate slow-proliferating tumors from aggressive, rapidly-proliferating tumors. Further, it has been proposed as an independent prognostic factor for the prediction of either overall survival or... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:321-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.45
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:1512  | Downloaded:191
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    A versatile method for enumeration and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with breast cancer

    Ujjwala M. Warawdekar, Vani Parmar, Aruna Prabhu, Abhay Kulkarni, Meenal Chaudhari, Rajendra A. Badwe
    Aim: To establish a standardized protocol for the isolation and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: The protocol used tumor cells spiked in a lymphoid cell line with detection by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Cells of the human mammary cancer subtypes were spiked into Jurkat cells, which served as the lymphocyte designate in numbers from 10 to 500 per 105 Jurkat cells. This mixed population was probed for CD45, EpCAM, and pancytokeratin acquired... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:23-33. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.66
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017  | Viewed:7913  | Downloaded:190
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pharmacogenomics in colorectal cancer: current role in clinical practice and future perspectives

    Francesca Battaglin, Alberto Puccini, Madiha Naseem, Marta Schirripa, Martin D. Berger, Ryuma Tokunaga, Michelle McSkane, Taline Khoukaz, Shivani Soni, Wu Zhang, Heinz-Josef Lenz
    The treatment scenario of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been evolving in recent years with the introduction of novel targeted agents and new therapeutic strategies for the metastatic disease. An extensive effort has been directed to the identification of predictive biomarkers to aid patients selection and guide therapeutic choices. Pharmacogenomics represents an irreplaceable tool to individualize patients treatment based on germline and tumor acquired somatic genetic variations able to predict drugs response and risk of toxicities. The growing knowledge of CRC molecular characteristics and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:12. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.04
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2416  | Downloaded:189
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Changes in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status between primary breast/gastric carcinomas and synchronous metastatic lymph nodes: how can we explain them?

    Antonio Ieni, Valeria Barresi, Giovanni Branca, Luana Licata, Rosario Alberto Caruso, Giovanni Tuccari
    Aim: Previous studies demonstrated discordant expression of human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 ( HER2) between primary cancer and their recurrence/metastasis. This study further evaluated HER2 status between primary gastric and breast invasive carcinomas and paired metastatic disease to lymph nodes. Methods: This study collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded representative tissue blocks from 62 gastric and 65 breast primary carcinomas as well as synchronous metastatic lymph nodes (male:female = 39:88; age ranged between 44 and 95 years with mean age of 69.32 years) for... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:21-6. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153445
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:3825  | Downloaded:189
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  • Review|Open Access

    Gastric cancer: prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastases

    Paul H. Sugarbaker
    Gastric cancer is an aggressive malignancy that may metastasize through the bloodstream to the liver, through lymphatics to regional lymph nodes, or by penetration of the peritoneal lining of the stomach to result in seeding of the abdominal and pelvis surfaces. Peritoneal metastases are the most common mode of cancer dissemination. Technologies to prevent or treat peritoneal metastases from advanced gastric cancer are presented in this manuscript. The world’s literature, both recent and over the past three decades, was reviewed in order to identify publications that present information... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.67
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:4484  | Downloaded:188
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, who received azacitidine

    Ourania Nicolatou-Galitis, Dimitra Galiti, Maria Moschogianni, Sotirios Sachanas, Beatrice J. Edwards, Cesar A. Migliorati, Gerassimos Pangalis
    The first case of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) related to azacitidine therapy was reported. A 64-year-old male with acute myeloid leukemia, who received 5-azacitidine, presented with pain and purulence of the right second premolar. An unsuccessful endodontic therapy resulted in dental extraction 6 months later. The post-extraction non-healing socket was managed with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements without response. ONJ stage 2 was diagnosed 12 months after the initial symptoms of pain and purulence and was managed conservatively. Currently the patient is still receiving... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:220-3. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.06
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:4460  | Downloaded:186
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Ten years of lung cancer in a single center: gender, histology, stage and survival

    Regina Gironés, Pedro López, Rebeca Chulvi, Mamen Cañabate, Torregrosa M. Dolores
    Aim: The aim was to describe, in a prospective manner, the clinical, histopathological and epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer patients who attended as outpatients at the Lluís Alcanyís, Xàtiva Medical Oncology Hospital, València, Spain from January 2004 to July 2014. We also analyzed survival and compared our data with that reported in the literature. Methods: Clinical and demographic characteristics were analyzed for the entire series and trends were compared by year of diagnosis. Changes in epidemiology were examined and compared. Results: There were 701 patients (91.4% were... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:201-7. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.166971
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3443  | Downloaded:186
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells: hope to diagnose and treat metastatic cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:1-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.72
    Published on: 12 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2635  | Downloaded:184
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    ERCC1 expression in patients with colorectal cancer: a pilot study

    Kinjal K. Gajjar, Deep Kumari Yadav, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Hemangini H. Vora, Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has a key role in enhanced DNA damage repair caused by oxaliplatin-based therapy and may lead to resistance of these platinum drugs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Hence, the present preliminary study aimed to explore the role of ERCC1 C/T polymorphism at codon 118 as well as its immunoreactivity in patients with primary CRC. Methods: ERCC1 polymorphism was studied using PCR-RFLP and ERCC1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 50 CRC patients. Results: ERCC1 codon 118 C/T polymorphism analysis reported the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:471-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.52
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1895  | Downloaded:183
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine tumor of mandible

    Jitender Batra, Chinmay D. Vakade, Sonal Grover, Gyanander Attresh
    Neuroendocrine tumors of the oral cavity and jaws are exceedingly rare. They include paragangliomas, a melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infants, small cell carcinomas, and Merckel cell carcinomas. Most have been non-functional in nature. Breast, lung, liver, colon, and prostate are the most common reported primary malignancies which can metastasize to the oral cavity. In most cases, oral metastases involve maxilla and mandible rather than soft tissues. The premolar-molar region is the most common localization. The purpose of this article is to describe a rare case of a high grade... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:127-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.170022
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:10567  | Downloaded:183
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    TGF-β stimulation of EMT programs elicits non-genomic ER-α activity and anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer cells

    Maozhen Tian, William P. Schiemann
    Aim: Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) activation drives the progression of luminal breast cancers. Signaling by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) typically opposes the actions of ER-α; it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs that promote breast cancer dissemination, stemness and chemoresistance. The impact of EMT programs on nongenomic ER-α signaling remains unknown and was studied herein. Methods: MCF-7 and BT474 cells were stimulated with TGF-β to induce EMT programs, at which point ER-α expression, localization, and nongenomic interactions with receptor tyrosine... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:150-60. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.38
    Published on: 21 Aug 2017  | Viewed:4274  | Downloaded:181
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Orbital lesions, an exceedingly rare site of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis

    Sara Pusceddu, Massimo Milione, Silvia Ortolani, Alessio Pellegrinelli, Marco Brugia, Filippo de Braud, Lorenzo Antonuzzo
    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare neoplasms arising primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and lung. The liver is the most common site of metastases, but these tumors can rarely metastasize to atypical sites. Surgery is the only curative approach while the optimal medical treatment is debated. From this perspective, a multidisciplinary approach for each single case becomes very important. In this report we describe the case of a male affected by a single intraorbital metastasis from a midgut well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. The patient refused surgical removal and therefore he was at... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:341-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.41
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016  | Viewed:2592  | Downloaded:180
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Detection and quantification of extracellular microRNAs in medulloblastoma

    Tarek Shalaby, Giulio Fiaschetti, Sylvain Baulande, Nicolas U. Gerber, Martin Baumgartner, Michael A. Grotzer
    Aim: Medu lloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The crucial role of extracellular-microRNAs (ex-miRNAs) in cancer has been widely recognized; however, their role in MB remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate MB-driven ex-miRNAs. Methods: Microarray analysis was used to disclose the identity and quantity of key miRNAs excreted in culture-medium (CM) of 3 human MB cell lines and cere brospinal fl uid (CSF) of brain tumors (including MB) and leukemia patients. MiRNA expression was validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:67-75. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157068
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:5658  | Downloaded:179
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular mechanism of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer

    Qing-Jiang Hu, Shuhei Ito, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Koshi Mimori
    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) is the most common cause of metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). Because there are no standard treatments for PD, it is associated with a poor prognosis. Although clinicians have performed intraperitoneal chemotherapy for GC with PD, the outcome remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the development of novel treatments and diagnostic tools for PD is expected to improve the prognosis of GC patients with PD. Notably, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of PD in GC. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of PD (three... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:39. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.08
    Published on: 26 Jul 2018  | Viewed:720  | Downloaded:175
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating microRNAs as a liquid biopsy: a next-generation clinical biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer

    Shuhei Komatsu, Jun Kiuchi, Taisuke Imamura, Daisuke Ichikawa, Eigo Otsuji
    Accumulating evidence has suggested the potential clinical utility of novel body fluid biomarkers, or “liquid biopsy”, using circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids from cancer patients. Noninvasive and reproducible, liquid biopsy could provide the basis for individualized therapeutic strategies by identifying genetic and epigenetic aberrations that are closely associated with cancer initiation and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They also play important roles in various physiological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:36. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.58
    Published on: 18 Jul 2018  | Viewed:655  | Downloaded:173
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a part of biotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao, Robert K. Oldham
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:3. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.63
    Published on: 22 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1333  | Downloaded:170
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord: a case report

    Ashutosh Das Sharma, Jyoti Poddar, Ubrangala Suryanarayan Kunikullaya, Jay Prakash Neema
    Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is rare, and the events involving the spinal cord are even more infrequent. A 30-year-old male presented with a mass lesion of the spinal cord. After radiological workup, the mass was resected in December 2012. The histopathological examination report and immunohistochemistry suggested malignant melanoma. PET-CT scan, brain MRI, and funduscopic examination did not reveal malignant melanoma elsewhere in the body. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy until March 2013. Presently, the patient is asymptomatic with normal... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:144-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.58
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016  | Viewed:6498  | Downloaded:170
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Interdisciplinary management of central nervous system metastasis and neoplastic meningitis: recent developments and future perspectives

    Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Marilin Koch, Cristiana Roggia, Juliane Ebert, Claus Garbe, Friedegund Meier, Sara Brucker, Eva Maria Grischke, Diethelm Wallwiener, Robert Möhle, Lothar Kanz, Walter Erich Auletzky, Ulrike Ernemann, Christian LaFougere, Konstantin Nikolaou, Bernd Pichler, Jens Schittenhelm, Manuela Neumann, Falko Fend, Stefan Czemmel, Sven Nahnsen, Frank Paulsen, Daniel Zips, Maike van Lessen, Hans-Otto Karnath, Ulf Ziemann, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Constantin Roder, Marco Skardelly, Jürgen Bernd Honegger, Marcos Tatagiba
    The incidence of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS) is rising. According to current estimates, up to a third of adult cancer patients will suffer from CNS metastasis. Clinical evidence-based data from prospective randomized trials are rare, however, because CNS metastasis patients were often excluded from clinical trial participation. The management of CNS metastasis patients is therefore rather ill-defined and an interdisciplinary challenge. Recent basic and translational science data have begun contributing to a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:163-75. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.01
    Published on: 18 May 2016  | Viewed:3212  | Downloaded:169
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Spinal intradural mature teratoma in an elderly patient

    Atef Ben Nsir, Karim Ben Hammouda, Imed Ben Said, Alia Zhani Kassar, Nidhameddine Kchir, Hafedh Jemel
    Spinal intradural mature teratomas are rarely encountered in adults. In this report, one of the oldest patients ever reported to harbor an intradural mature teratoma of the conus medullaris is presented, and the relevant literature concerning the teratoma’s origin, clinical presentation, radiological features, and treatment modalities is reviewed. A previously healthy 70-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of left sciatica. Her neurological examination was normal and the magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine showed an intradural, partially cystic mass extending... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:106-10. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157808
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6110  | Downloaded:169
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Association between the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and prognosis

    Meraj Farbod, Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi, Hamid Harazi, Tahereh Nazari, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha
    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the potential influences of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms on breast cancer risk, the distribution of CTLA-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (1661AG) in breast cancer patients and control subjects was investigated. Methods: In this case-control study, 100 patients with breast cancer as case group and 100 healthy participants as a control group were compared. Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Demographic characteristics of the study population, as well as tumor... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:16-20. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153314
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:4848  | Downloaded:167
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  • Review|Open Access

    Microenvironment in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer metastasis

    Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Hideo Baba
    Tumor tissues contain cancer cells, other cellular and non-cellular components. Tumor microenvironments consist of cancer cells and various types of stromal cells, cancer associated fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells, mainly tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Increasing recent evidence has demonstrated that alteration of tumor microenvironments is deeply implicated in tumor progression and metastasis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Recent investigations have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.79
    Published on: 28 Feb 2018  | Viewed:2057  | Downloaded:166
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Non-anthracycline chemotherapy associated with a poor outcome in elderly Egyptian patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Ahmed A. Zeeneldin, Yasser A. Sallam, Ayman A. Gaber, Amgad A. Shaheen
    Aim: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCNHL). Nevertheless, anthracyclines are contraindicated for some patients, e.g. cardiac dysfunction, severe hepatic dysfunction, jaundice. Thus, this study assessed the effectiveness of non-anthracycline chemotherapy regimen cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) in elderly DLBCNHL patients vs. the standard CHOP. Methods: This retrospective study included 418 DLBCNHL patients diagnosed between 2003 and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:76-83. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.156767
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6379  | Downloaded:166
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Nibrin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters

    Jigna H. Dave, Hemangini H. Vora, Trupti I. Trivedi, Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: The present study sought to discover the role of Nibrin protein in 100 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its potential relationship with clinicopathological parameters. Methods: Nibrin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically using the modified H-score method. Results: The present study included 20% of patients with stage I disease, 22% of patients with stage II disease, 18% of patients with stage III disease, and 40% of patients with stage IV disease. Nibrin showed a significant positive correlation with moderately/poorly differentiated tumor tissues (P =... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:436-42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.82
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1709  | Downloaded:165
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  • Meeting Abstracts|Open Access

    Obergurgl Research Conference Abstracts on "Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment"

    Ira-Ida Skvortsova
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:417-35. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.58
    Published on: 16 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1617  | Downloaded:162
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Unusual skeletal muscle metastasis from carcinoma cervix

    Mehlam Kausar, Desh Deepak Ladia, Abhinav Mutneja, Virendra Bhandari
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy in Indian women. It usually spreads locally or via regional lymphatics to retroperitoneal lymph nodes and hematogenous spread is rare. The occurrence of skeletal muscle metastases is a very rare event and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The authors present an unusual case of cervical carcinoma in a patient that presented with skeletal muscle metastasis 1 year after the treatment Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:67-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.170545
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016  | Viewed:2337  | Downloaded:162
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Cancer preventing spices

    Ishtiaque Alam, Hashmat Imam, Zarnigar Riaz
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:41-2. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.154131
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:1943  | Downloaded:161
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Do elderly NSCLC stage IV patients benefit from chemotherapy as well as younger? An analysis from clinical practice date

    Regina Gironés, Pedro López, Rebeca Chulvi, Mamen Cañabate
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment related to age in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared young and elders (> 70) in the setting of a regional Spanish hospital. We hypothesized that elder benefit as much as younger patients from chemotherapy in stage IV NSCLC. The study was limited to performance status 0-2. Methods: Clinical and demographic characteristics were reviewed form medical records. Type of treatment was collected and compared, as well as benefit from treatment, in terms of overall survival. Results: 322 patients (162... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:379-87. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.20
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2500  | Downloaded:160
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Adenosine A2B receptor: novel anti-cancer therapeutic implications

    Silvia Paola Corona, Navid Sobhani, Daniele Generali
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:206-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.50
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1151  | Downloaded:159
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The role of technetium Tc99m-tetrofosmin as head and neck tumor-seeking agent: a preliminary report

    Chrissa Sioka, Thomas Exarchopoulos, Vlasis Skloupiotis, Vaios Papathanassiou, Vasileios Ragos, Maria Argyropoulou, Anna Gousia, Periklis Tsekeris, Georgios Exarchakos, Dimitrios Assimakopoulos, Andreas Fotopoulos
    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of technetium Tc99m-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) in primary cancers of the head and neck. Methods: Single photon emission computer tomography with planar imaging of the neck for primary site evaluation and whole body scanning for assessment of metastases in 12 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer. Tumor-to-background index (T/Bg) was derived in patients with positive findings (tumor or lymph nodes). Results: The tomographic images showed increased tracer uptake in pathological sites (primary tumor or lymph node) in 9 patients (overall... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:133-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.65
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016  | Viewed:3674  | Downloaded:158
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metastatic breast cancer: an unusual cause of diplopia

    Nasser Mohammed Amer, Gareth Bashir, Arikoge Ogedegbe, Ibtisam Saeed
    While secondary solid cancer into the eye orbit is rare, it is the most common site for primary metastasis in female breast cancer. We report a case of a sixty-six years old woman presenting to her optician with complaints of double vision. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an invasive lesion in the superior and medial rectus muscles of the right orbit, biopsy of which confirmed this as an infiltrating breast carcinoma. Investigation of the primary lesion showed an advanced invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. She was then treated with radiotherapy to the orbit and a non... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:123-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.13
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:4945  | Downloaded:158
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cell-mediated immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Wei-Chen Lee
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Most of the time, these tumors are diagnosed at late stages. Because no effective treatments exist for patients with advanced stage HCC, there is an urgent need for novel, effective treatments. Cancer cells originate as a consequence of abnormal expression of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressor genes. Often, neoplastic transformation results in a hyper-mutated cellular genome, which in turn produces neo-antigens from mutated genes. These tumor-specific or tumor-associated antigens can be recognized by... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:244-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.48
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1716  | Downloaded:156
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Prognostic significance of transcription factors FOXA1 and GATA-3 in ductal carcinoma in situ in terms of recurrence and estrogen receptor status

    Mamatha Chivukula, Jennifer Picarsic, Gautam Bulusu, Adam Brufsky, Gretchen Ahrendt, Gloria Carter
    Aim: The aim was to analyze the expression of novel biological transcription markers, forkhead-box A1 (FOXA1), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), and established markers such as Ki-67 (MIB-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in estrogen receptor (ER(+)) and ER(-) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients with/without recurrence. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of DCIS were retrieved from our pathology database, with complete data available for 219 cases. The follow-up period is from 1988 to 2009. Recurrence is defined in terms of DCIS or invasive carcinoma (IC). No... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:84-9. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.157600
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:6614  | Downloaded:155
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    The significance and clinical utility of the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells: a review of the evidence

    Nigel P. Murray
    Primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) are those detected in blood before definitive treatment for prostate cancer. CPCs can be detected in men with benign prostate disease; however, some methods to distinguish between benign and malignant prostate cells have to be validated. This study presents a review of the subject, including theoretical considerations for the selection of markers to detect them, the different methods used, and the utility of their detection in identifying men with prostate cancer and as a prognostic factor. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:453-62. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.55
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1398  | Downloaded:154
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Complete response with fotemustine and bevacizumab after early progression following radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment in patient with glioblastoma multiforme

    Ovidio Fernández Calvo, María Eva Pérez López, Jesús García Gómez
    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common type of primary central nervous system tumor and is noted for its short survival and poor response to chemotherapeutic agents. Unfortunately, the relapse rate is very high, and there is no reference drug for second-line treatment. In this study, a patient was treated with the Soffietti regimen. The induction phase was fotemustine 75 mg/m2 at day 1 and day 8 and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg at day 1 and day 15. The maintenance phase was fotemustine 75 mg/m2 and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for two cycles. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:36-8. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153446
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:2651  | Downloaded:152
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Large chest wall fibromatosis with challenging treatment plan

    Rashi Agrawal, Prekshi Choudhary, Arun Kumar Goel, Vaishali Zamre, Sandeep Agarwal, Dinesh Singh
    The primary mode of treatment for desmoid tumors is surgical excision. However, high recurrence rates (39-79%) have been reported when surgery is used alone. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical resection of primary disease is controversial and should be based on a balanced discussion of potential morbidity from radiotherapy and local recurrence. In this patient, the maximum dimension of tumor was 21 cm. This is a larger chest wall fibromatosis than has been reported thus far, to the best of our knowledge. In this case, post-operative margins were free, but in view of the large... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:139-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.02
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2070  | Downloaded:151
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  • Review|Open Access

    Expression and regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenases in prostate cancer

    Ali I. M. Ibrahim, Maria Sadiq, Fiona M. Frame, Norman J. Maitland, Klaus Pors
    The functional role of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) in prostate cancer remains an area of some controversy. Many studies have used high ALDH functional activity to isolate putative cancer stem cells with tumour-initiating and propagating properties, while evidence is also emerging about the involvement of specific isoforms in migration, invasiveness and metastasis. Identification of specific ALDH isoforms, which contribute to both drug resistance and aggressiveness of the disease remains a challenge within the complex heterogeneity of prostate cancer. The purpose of this perspective is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:44. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.07
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1063  | Downloaded:150
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Merkel cell carcinoma responsive to Etoposide: a case report and brief literature review

    Chiara Ancona, Andrea Caff, Giovanni Manfredi Assanto, Stefano Cordio
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), first described in 1972, is an aggressive primary cutaneous carcinoma able to incorporate both epithelial and neuroendocrine features. MCC mainly appears in individuals in their eighth decade and it is related to a high mortality rate. The etiology of this rare disease is not well-understood but ultraviolet radiation exposure, immune suppression, and aging have a consistent role in its pathogenesis. Usually, clinical lesions appear as asymptomatic coloured dermal nodules. The tumour can involve lymph nodes but further evaluation with imaging is recommended. The... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:310-2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.46
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016  | Viewed:4866  | Downloaded:150
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Isolated breast metastasis mimicking as second primary cancer - a case report

    Manjari Shah, Umang Mithal, Sandeep Agarwal, Sweety Gupta, Disha Tiwari, Shashank Srinivasan, Asheesh Jain, Ritu Chandra
    Primary carcinoma of breast is common but breast is a rare site of metastasis and metastases from extramammary sites are even rarer. Metastasis to breast from rectal carcinoma is very unusual and till now 19 cases of breast secondaries from colorectal carcinoma have been reported in literature which include 14 cases where the primary site was colon and remaining 5 were from the rectum. Here the authors report a case of adenocarcinoma anorectum who had completed treatment and after 4 months developed a lump in her left breast which was metastatic. Metastatic lesions of breast are usually... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:391-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.22
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016  | Viewed:2823  | Downloaded:150
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  • Review|Open Access

    Laparoscopic personalized function-preserving gastrectomy with sentinel node mapping for early-stage gastric cancer

    Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa
    Laparoscopic gastrectomy is considered as an indispensable option between endoscopic resection and standard gastrectomy with open laparotomy for patients with early-stage gastric cancer. However, the extent of gastrectomy and remnant gastric function may affect patients’ quality of life (QOL) after surgery. Therefore, function-preserving gastrectomy in addition to laparoscopic surgery could be considered in patients with early-stage gastric cancer. A prospective multicenter trial and meta-analyses of sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy for early-stage gastric cancer have demonstrated... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.83
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:582  | Downloaded:148
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: expression, roles in metastatic prostate cancer progression and opportunities for drug targeting

    Robert A. Falconer, Paul M. Loadman
    The membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), an important subgroup of the wider MMP family, demonstrate widespread expression in multiple tumor types, and play key roles in cancer growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. Despite a large body of published research, relatively little information exists regarding evidence for MT-MMP expression and function in metastatic prostate cancer. This review provides an appraisal of the literature describing gene and protein expression in prostate cancer cells and clinical tissue, summarises the evidence for roles in prostate cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:315-27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.40
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3105  | Downloaded:148
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, PUMA in lung tissues of lung cancer patients in the Xuanwei and non-Xuanwei areas of Yunnan Province

    Kai-Yun Yang, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Yue-Feng He, Kushal Rizal, Hui Tan, An-Ning Chen, Yun-Chao Huang, Guang-Qiang Zhao, Yu-Jie Lei
    Aim: To study the expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in lung tissue of patients with lung cancer from Xuanwei of Yunnan Province. Methods: Forty-five cases of lung cancer patients from Xuanwei and 42 lung cancer cases from non-Xuanwei were enrolled. Extraction of RNA was done using the Trizol kit. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was done to obtain the relative expression. Results: Expressions of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in male and female patients or in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, expression of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:65-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.65
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1641  | Downloaded:147
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Extracellular control of chromosomal instability and maintenance of intra-tumoral heterogeneity

    Yi-Hong Zhou, Kambiz Afrasiabi, Mark E. Linskey
    Aim: Current cancer treatments are challenged by the plasticity of cancer cells, largely influenced by chromosomal instability (CIN) leading to variations in karyotype known as tumor-specific aneuploidy, which in turn, leads to intra-tumor cellular heterogeneity (TH). Cells with certain chromosomal defects often survive treatment and the growth-associated states of TH persist in recurrent tumors. Modulation of the CIN rate seems to reside within the tumor itself. In an attempt to develop a therapy targeting cancer plasticity, we studied the possible extracellular control of CIN rate in... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:41. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.16
    Published on: 2 Aug 2018  | Viewed:634  | Downloaded:146
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Orbital metastasis from anorectal carcinoma

    Pavan Kumar Lachi, Megha S. Uppin, Monica Irukulla, Kotiyala V. Jaganadha Rao Naidu
    Pulmonary and liver metastases are common sites of distant metastasis from the rectal carcinoma. Metastases to the head and neck region are uncommon from carcinoma of the rectum, and orbital metastases are extremely rare. Here, we describe a 27-year-old female, who was diagnosed as a case of anorectal carcinoma in April 2010. She underwent abdominoperineal resection followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5 fl uorouracil and leucovorin on follow-up. In January 2012, she presented with gradually increasing swelling over the left temporal region and left sided... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:104-5. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.158434
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:4578  | Downloaded:146
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  • Review|Open Access

    Unmasking tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution by single-cell analysis

    Xiaoshan Shi, Papia Chakraborty, Amitabha Chaudhuri
    The intratumoral heterogeneity orchestrated by the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms enable cancers to persist and spread notwithstanding the use of aggressive interventional therapies. The heterogeneity is revealed at multiple levels - at the level of individual tumor cells, in the cellular composition of tumor infiltrates and in the chemical microenvironment in which the cells reside. Deconvoluting the complex nature of the cell types present in the tumor, along with the homo and heterotypic interactions between different cell types can produce novel insights of biological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:47. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.32
    Published on: 31 Aug 2018  | Viewed:2193  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Androgen-AR axis in primary and metastatic prostate cancer: chasing steroidogenic enzymes for therapeutic intervention

    Agnese C. Pippione, Donatella Boschi, Klaus Pors, Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso, Marco L. Lolli
    Androgens play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the front-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer, patients eventually relapse with the lethal form of the disease. The prostate tumor microenvironment is characterised by elevated tissue androgens that are capable of activating the androgen receptor (AR). Inhibiting the steroidogenic enzymes that play vital roles in the biosynthesis of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) seems to be an attractive strategy for PCa therapies. Emerging data... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:328-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.44
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:7253  | Downloaded:142
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Pediatric gliomatosis cerebri presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage leading to poor outcome

    Hiromasa Adachi, Masashi Kitagawa, Toshinari Kawasaki, Takafumi Wataya
    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is an uncommon disease, defined as diffuse infiltration of neoplastic glial cells involving at least three cerebral lobes. GCs in young population are rare. We described a case of 14-year-old woman with GC who did not receive any recommended treatment, because the patient’s family refused. The patient had a rapid deterioration in 5 months after first symptoms due to intratumoral bleeding. This is the first case report of intratumoral bleeding after diagnosis of GC is made, resulting in poor outcome. GC may acquire possibility of intratumoral hemorrhage through its... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:375-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.33
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1765  | Downloaded:142
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Carcinoma cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases

    Anuradha Kapali, Atmakuri Sateesh Kumar, Mukunda Malathi, S. D. Shamsundar
    Skeletal metastasis in carcinoma cervix occurs in about 0.8-23% of cases. These lesions are usually radiographically lytic. Very few cases of metastases to the skull have been identified, about 5 cases to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases in a 38-year-old lady that is not reported till date. The lesion was lytic, expansile and with negative attenuation of -15 to -30 Hounsfield units corresponding to fat.Metastases must be included in the differentials of scalp lesions. A history of recent onset of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:228-30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.87
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016  | Viewed:2619  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 3 of Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:111-2. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.166973
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015  | Viewed:3118  | Downloaded:142
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue 18 years after renal transplantation: a case report

    Jyoti Poddar, Ashutosh Das Sharma, Ubrangala Suryanarayana Kunikullaya
    Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing malignancies, even decades after transplant, due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. A 35-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end stage renal disease 18 years previously and was on immunosuppressive drugs since that time and was on regular follow up. In 2016, he developed a squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, which was operated and adjuvant radiation therapy was given. The patient is currently on follow up and asymptomatic. Though squamous cell carcinoma of tongue is a relatively common malignancy in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:443-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.36
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1408  | Downloaded:140
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction of the special issue “How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?”

    Jason P. Webber, Klaus Pors
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:45. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.46
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:496  | Downloaded:139
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Use of a dedicated day care unit in a modern radiation oncology facility -- a short audit

    Tejinder Kataria, Susovan Banerjee, Nimesh Dahima, Deepak Gupta, Trinanjan Basu, Shikha Goyal
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:21-2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.73
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:1413  | Downloaded:139
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metachronous bladder metastasis from papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Arun Ramdas Menon, Nivedita Suresh, Prajwal Ravinder, Rajeev Thekke Puthalath
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its metastatic potential and predilection for unusual sites of metastasis. Metastasis to the bladder is rare and has been reported predominantly from clear cell RCC. We report a case of a 72-year-old male presenting with a bladder tumor which on histopathological evaluation was found to be a metastasis from papillary RCC, 7 years after radical nephrectomy. This case highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion to diagnose bladder metastasis in a patient with a history of RCC presenting with a bladder lesion. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:130-2. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.169645
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016  | Viewed:2739  | Downloaded:139
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metastatic clostridial myonecrosis secondary to perforated metastatic bowel cancer

    Nasser Mohammed Amer, John Karayanis
    Spontaneous metastatic clostridial myonecrosis is a rare condition caused by Clostridium septicum. The underlying lesion is usually either a colonic neoplasm or leukemia. The authors reported a 67-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen secondary to a perforated sigmoid cancer and who developed gas gangrene in her right leg. Unfortunately, despite all resuscitative measures, she died. The authors reviewed the literature; the diagnosis of metastatic myonecrosis was based on a high index of suspicion, development of bullae containing gram-positive rods, and subcutaneous crepitus... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:402-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.16
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016  | Viewed:1963  | Downloaded:137
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The combined analysis of solid and liquid biopsies provides additional clinical information to improve patient care

    Ana Finzel, Helen Sadik, Gregori Ghitti, Jean-François Laes
    Aim: To investigate if the genetic information provided by sequencing of both solid and liquid biopsies can shed light on tumor heterogeneity, and to understand the clinical usefulness of adding blood profiling to standard tissue analysis in cancer care. Methods: Data from 351 patients with stage IV solid tumors for whom molecular profiling of their solid and liquid biopsies was available were studied, with a focus on the discrepant molecular information found between tissue and blood samples. Results: In 86% of patients, solid and liquid biopsies provided different molecular information.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:21. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.10
    Published on: 8 May 2018  | Viewed:1637  | Downloaded:135
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    A small solitary fibrous tumor of the bladder

    Guido Petracco, Carlo Patriarca
    The authors present a case of histologically benign and incidentally discovered millimetric solitary fibrous tumor of the bladder, invisible to radiologic imaging and clinically benign. The case came to our attention because of repeated episodes of renal colic. As opposed to the present case, solitary fibrous tumor are generally discovered when they reach certain dimensions, being slow-growing, painless masses. Such a tumor of the bladder is a very rare finding, with less than 20 cases reported, and it has yet to be described with such a small size. The main differential diagnoses are... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:388-90. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.21
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016  | Viewed:1992  | Downloaded:132
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of long noncoding RNAs in cancer metastasis

    Christine Parsons, Alexis M. Tayoun, Benjamin D. Benado, Gabriel Ragusa, Rose F. Dorvil, Elizabeth A. Rourke, Kaitlyn O’ Connor, Irene G. Reed, Angela Alexander, Lian Willetts, Maryam Habibian, Brian D. Adams
    Signaling pathways are tightly controlled systems that regulate the appropriate timing of gene expression required for the differentiation of cells down a particular lineage essential for proper tissue development. Proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic pathways are just a few examples of the signaling pathways that require fine-tuning, so as to control the proper development of a particular tissue type or organ system. An estimated 70% of the genome is actively transcribed, only 2% of which codes for known protein-coding genes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in particular, are a large and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:19. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.11
    Published on: 28 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1941  | Downloaded:130
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The synergy of Helicobacter pylori and lipid metabolic disorders in induction of Th17-related cytokines in human gastric cancer

    Jie Liu, Han Wang, Gang Chen, Mo Yang, Zhi-Xian Wu, Russell Erick Ericksen, Alice Sze Tsai Wong, Weiping Han, Jin-Zhang Zeng
    Aim: To study the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and lipid metabolic disorder on the expression of Th17-related cytokines in gastric cancer (GC). Methods: GC specimens were randomly collected from 42 patients, of whom 15 had H. pylori infection and 27 were without. Tumor RNA was extracted for reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantification of gene expression. Results: The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin, which are known to regulate Th17 differentiation, were upregulated by 20 and 6 folds, respectively, in H. pylori-infected compared to... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:169-76. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.46
    Published on: 29 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1954  | Downloaded:130
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  • Review|Open Access

    Robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Masanori Tokunaga, Masahiro Watanabe, Shizuki Sugita, Akiko Tonouchi, Akio Kaito, Takahiro Kinoshita
    Robotic gastrectomy (RG) is increasingly performed, particularly in East Asia. With articulated devices, surgeons are able to perform every procedure more comfortably and meticulously, which makes RG ideal from the surgeon’s standpoint. However, it is still unclear whether it is a suitable treatment strategy from the patient’s viewpoint, due to the lack of solid evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials. The feasibility of RG has been demonstrated in many retrospective comparative studies, which showed similar trends, including relatively less estimated blood loss and longer... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:40. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.80
    Published on: 30 Jul 2018  | Viewed:718  | Downloaded:128
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Systemic humoral responses of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer during BCG treatment: less is more

    Fernando M. Calais da Silva, Paula A. Videira, Dário Ligeiro, Maria Guadalupe Cabral, Richard Sylvester, Fernando E. Calais da Silva, Hélder Trindade
    Aim: Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the mainstay adjuvant treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, one third of the patients on BCG regimen relapse within the first year of treatment. This study aimed at identifying biomarkers to predict response to BCG treatment. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed in blood cells of 58 patients treated with BCG through six consecutive weekly instillations and then at month 3, 6, 9, and 12. Cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6; chemokines CCL2, CCL3,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:116-26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.25
    Published on: 14 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2162  | Downloaded:128
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic targets against gastric cancer stem cells interacting with tumor microenvironment

    Tomoyuki Uchihara, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Atsuko Yonemura, Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is known to be the main reason for resistance to anticancer agents as well as for the development of distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves harbor self-renewal and differentiation abilities, the tumor microenvironment that surrounds CSCs provides secreted factors and supports angiogenesis and is thus responsible for the maintenance of their CSC properties. The current review provides information regarding the impact of the tumor microenvironment on gastric CSCs, which... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.81
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1313  | Downloaded:127
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Alkaline phosphatase flare with hyperostosis of bone metastases in lung adenocarcinoma treated with gefitinib

    Hiroto Kaneko, Kazuho Shimura, Yosuke Matsumoto, Mihoko Yoshida, Masafumi Taniwaki, Junya Kuroda
    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) flare has been reported to occur during cancer treatment as a favorable event, particularly in the presence of bone metastasis. There have been only a few reports in lung cancer and associated radiographic findings have seldom been described. The authors observed ALP flare in a female patient with lung adenocarcinoma soon after the initiation of gefitinib. Moreover, on computed tomography, metastatic lesions of the rib and thoracic spine showed marked hyperostosis, with sizes larger than the original bone structure, suggesting efficacy of gefitinib. The... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:34-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.70
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2240  | Downloaded:127
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  • Systematic Review|Open Access

    Surgical treatment of stage IV gastric cancer: is it worthwhile?

    Ilaria Pergolini, Paolo Ciano, Gianluca Guercioni, Marco Catarci
    Aim: To analyze clinical features and survival outcomes of patients with surgically-treated stage IV gastric cancer, in order to evaluate the suitability of surgery in these patients. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase on October 9th, 2017. Survival outcomes data were collected. Results: The original search returned 2434 papers. Thirty-nine studies were included in the final review, of which 26 evaluated liver metastasis resection, four pulmonary metastasis resections and nine palliative gastrectomies. In total 933 patients underwent... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:33. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.84
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:712  | Downloaded:125
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Introduction to this special issue on brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Michael A. Grotzer
    It is my privilege to introduce the readers to this special issue entitled “Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations”. As cancer is a global epidemic which knows no borders, efforts to better understand biology and to control it should know no borders either. This issue contains a mixture of clinical and preclinical scholarly articles that have been written by scientists from America, Europe, and the Middle East. I hope that the fresh insights represented here will be appreciated by neuro-oncologists and brain cancer researchers across the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:147-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.23
    Published on: 18 May 2016  | Viewed:764  | Downloaded:124
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    The therapeutic potential of duloxetine in prostate cancer-related fatigue

    Rita De Sanctis, Alessandro Viganò
    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common polysymptomatic syndrome with no standard therapy. The authors present the case of a prostate cancer patient in whom, during hormone therapy, disabling CRF and urinary incontinence occurred. CRF was assessed according to the brief fatigue inventory (BFI). The patient received duloxetine, 60 mg daily, due to its impact on both CRF and incontinence. After 2 months, the BFI score decreased (from 9 to 2) and urinary incontinence resolved. After duloxetine discontinuation, the patient maintained a low BFI score. The authors conclude that, as a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:64-6. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.164646
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016  | Viewed:1214  | Downloaded:124
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 2 of Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment

    Lucio Miele
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:43. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.160150
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015  | Viewed:2375  | Downloaded:124
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Health-related quality of life and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors, Northwest of Iran

    Nayyereh Aminisani, Mehdi Fatemi, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Alireza Nikanfar, Amirtaher Eftekharsadat, Esmat Jafari
    Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors in northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in northwest of Iran. Rectal cancer survivors were selected from teaching hospitals. HRQOL was estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30. Information about socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical features of disease was obtained by trained interviewers. Results: A total of 96 patients were included in this... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:209-16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.47
    Published on: 29 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1178  | Downloaded:121
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Combination of insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF binding protein-3, chromogranin A and prostate specific antigen can improve the detection of prostate cancer

    Saleh Ahmed Kamaleldin Saleh, Heba Mohamed Adly, Anmar Mohammed Nassir
    Aim: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent male cancer worldwide and designated the sixth most frequent male cancer in Arab countries. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has become the best and most valuable biomarker for screening of PCa, elevated levels of PSA can reflect the presence of malignant cells but can overlap with benign prostatic diseases. There is a necessity to develop and improve current tools for early detection and diagnosis of PCa. This study was done to evaluate the validation of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:82-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.20
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:2113  | Downloaded:121
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Chest wall metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    Jayesh Shyamnandan Singh, Ashutosh Das Sharma
    Metastases from head and neck cancers is rare occurrence. The common form of failure/recurrence in these cancers are local site recurrence or nodal metastases. Distant metastases are very rare and are most commonly seen in the lung, brain, liver and bones, and the latent period between the development of the primary and the distant metastases is usually long. There are very few cases reported of chest wall metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. This article reports such a case of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa metastasizing to the chest wall four months after... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:78-81. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.08
    Published on: 28 Apr 2017  | Viewed:1939  | Downloaded:121
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of health care insurance on overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Srinivas S. Devarakonda, Runhua Shi, Ellen Friday, Reinhold Munker, Jonathan Glass, Francesco Turturro
    Aim: Health care insurance improves access to care and thus outcome in patients with solid tumors. Little information on the impact of health care insurance on hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma exists. The authors aimed to analyze the effect of health care insurance on the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, LA. Methods: Two hundred fifty seven patients were reviewed, of which 208 had MM and 49 had MGUS. Results: One hundred and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:100-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.19
    Published on: 9 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2114  | Downloaded:120
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Malignant eccrine acrospiroma with nodal and bone metastasis

    Burhan Wani, Shiekh Aejaz Aziz, Mohmad Hussain Mir, Gull Mohammad Bhat, Abdul Rashid Lone
    Acrospiromas are cutaneous tumors of sweat duct differentiation. Although various eccrine sweat gland tumours including benign acrospiroma are widely reviewed, malignant acrospiroma is rarely reported. Clinically, they resemble other cutaneous lesions and the primary treatment is wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy requires further investigation. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:255-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.92
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016  | Viewed:2301  | Downloaded:120
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  • Review|Open Access

    Conversion surgery for stage IV gastric cancer

    Satoshi Ida, Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastric cancer with distant metastases, such as para-aortic lymph node metastases, hepatic metastases, and peritoneal dissemination, is classified as stage IV. In this situation, cancer cells have formed micrometastases throughout the body; therefore, according to the algorithm of the Japanese guidelines, stage IV cancer is outside the indication for curative resection. Recent advances in some chemical agents have been remarkable, and some patients have survived for long periods even with stage IV gastric cancer. Thus, even in patients with stage IV gastric cancer, there is a possibility... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:22. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.75
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:890  | Downloaded:118
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Gastric cancer treated with pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy: revising an option for peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Filipa Macedo, Kátia Ladeira, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, Sandra F. Martins
    Aim: Gastric cancer is the cancer with the highest rate of peritoneal metastization and this type of spread is associated with a higher death rate compared to distant organ metastasis. The systemic chemotherapy has a minimal effect in peritoneal metastasis so new types of treatment have emerged. The authors revised the main studies done in pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) and presented the main conclusions. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted focusing on PIPAC in gastric cancer. The MeSH database was searched with the terms: “Gastric cancer [MeSH] and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.72
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1670  | Downloaded:115
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Introduction to the Special Issue on Cancer Immunotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:217. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.21
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:865  | Downloaded:115
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    HOX transcription factors and the prostate tumor microenvironment

    Richard Morgan, Hardev S. Pandha
    It is now well established that the tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in the survival, growth, invasion, and spread of cancer through the regulation of angiogenesis and localized immune responses. This review examines the role of the HOX genes, which encode a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors, in the interaction between prostate tumors and their microenvironment. Previous studies have established that HOX genes have an important function in prostate cancer cell survival in vitro and in vivo, but there is also evidence that HOX proteins regulate the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:278-87. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.31
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2177  | Downloaded:114
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Uterine large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with unusual colonic metastasis

    Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Angelico, Rosalba De Sarro, Francesco Fleres, Antonio Macrì, Giovanni Tuccari
    A 78-year-old female patient arrived at our practice complaining of progressive abdominal increase and presenting a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. At physical examination, the abdomen appeared distended, moderately painful with the presence of a mass of hard consistency. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense pelvic mass that indicated a compression and lateral deviation of the uterus and bladder. Microscopically, the mass showed a uniform solid pattern, composed of medium and large-sized cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei demonstrating high... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:144-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.15
    Published on: 16 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2551  | Downloaded:113
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metachronous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to bilateral testis

    Sameer Nain, Suman Kharkwal, Onkar Kaur
    Unusual site metastasis as a presenting complaint of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported previously in the literature. RCC is a tumor with notoriously unpredictable behavior. The authors report an unusual case of metachronous bilateral testicular metastasis in a patient who operated for RCC. The case highlights the unique behavior of RCC with an unusual site of metastasis. A 72-year-old patient presented with bilateral scrotal swelling of 1-month duration. There was a history of left radical nephrectomy for RCC 4 years prior. He underwent a bilateral high inguinal orchidectomy and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2015;1:39-40. | doi:10.4103/2394-4722.153913
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015  | Viewed:1792  | Downloaded:113
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Report of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis and literature review

    Abhidha Malik, Ritesh Kumar, Abhishek Shankar, Sunil Chumber, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Kaushal, Bala Thirunavukkarasu
    Primary sarcomas of kidney are exceptionally rare tumors, accounting for only 1-2% of all malignant tumors of kidney. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common histological subtype among all renal sarcomas. The authors describe here a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis in a 50-year-old lady, presenting with flank pain. Based on triple phase cardio-electroencephalographic covariance tracing abdomen, presumptive diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma/renal sarcoma/neurogenic tumor was made and patient underwent radical nephrectomy. Microscopy reflected spindle cell tumor which showed... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:111-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.12
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1464  | Downloaded:112
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Increased ARF6 activation correlates with HGF stimulation in non-invasive prostate cancer cells

    Claire Morgan, Lucy J. Swithenbank, Helen Whiteland, Shareen H. Doak
    Aim: The effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on a non-invasive prostate cancer cell line (CAHPV-10), expressing cMET were studied, to mimic the possible effects neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy may have in promoting tumour progression. Methods: Prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells derived from cancer metastatic sites were analysed using cell culture assays, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, with or without HGF stimulation. Results: HGF significantly enhanced cell proliferation and induced cell scattering... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:46. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.19
    Published on: 30 Aug 2018  | Viewed:745  | Downloaded:111
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  • Meta-Analysis|Open Access

    The potential prognostic and predictive roles of programmed cell death protein 1 expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    Dong-Yun Zhang, Rong-Zhi Liu, Jian-Wei Ku, Yu-Hong Ma, Ying-Jie Yi
    Aim: Several previous studies have evaluated the potential role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in various solid tumors and performed its prognosis role in patients’ survival with inconsistent results. This study aims to further systematically evaluate the association of PD-1 by TILs with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes in solid tumor patients. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases for relevant studies. The potential prognostic and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.01
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1097  | Downloaded:104
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Percutaneous, computed tomography guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients

    Periklis Zavridis, Maria Tsitskari, Argyro Mazioti, Dimitrios Filippiadis
    Aim: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients. Methods: Over the course of 16 months, 22 patients underwent radiofrequency neurolysis as palliative therapy for pain reduction in celiac and splachnic plexus (n = 9), thoracic (n = 1), lumbar (n = 2) and superior hypogastric plexus (n = 5), as well as stellate ganglion (n = 5). Pain levels before treatment, one week after treatment, and at the last follow-up (average follow-up 6 months) were compared by means... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:60-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.04
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1506  | Downloaded:102
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    New insights into the role of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in carcinogenesis: identification of complex single gene variance within tumors

    Bruce Gottlieb, Farbod Babrzadeh, Kathleen Klein Oros, Carlos Alvarado, Chunlin Wang, Baback Gharizadeh, Mark Basik, Celia M.T. Greenwood, Lenore K. Beitel, Mark Trifiro
    Aim: Present cancer hypotheses are almost all based on the concept that accumulation of specific driver gene mutations cause carcinogenesis. The discovery of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH), has resulted in this hypothesis being modified by assuming that most of these ITGH mutations are in passenger genes. In addition, accumulating ITGH data on driver gene mutations have revealed considerable genotype/phenotype disconnects. This study proposes to investigate this disconnect by examining the nature and degree of ITGH in breast tumors. Methods: ITGH was examined in tumors using next... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:37. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.26
    Published on: 19 Jul 2018  | Viewed:938  | Downloaded:100
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Targeting adenosine receptor 2B in triple negative breast cancer

    Carola A. Neumann, Kevin Levine, Steffi Oesterreich
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:13. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.60
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1743  | Downloaded:100
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  • Review|Open Access

    Recent trend in gastric cancer treatment in the USA

    Kazuto Harada, Hideo Baba, Jaffer A. Ajani
    Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is estimated as the fifteenth most common cancer in the USA. Incidence rate has been gradually decreasing, but prognosis remains dismal. For patients with locally advanced GAC (stage > T1B and < T4B), multimodality therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are needed. Perioperative chemotherapy or postoperative chemoradiation/chemotherapy is recommended. For metastatic GAC patients, combination of two cytotoxics (platinum compound and fluoropyrimidine) has become a common place in the USA, and when HER2 is positive, trastuzumab is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:18. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.74
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1305  | Downloaded:98
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    Treatment of liver metastases in patients selected for cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Antonio Sommariva
    Cytoreductive surgery (CS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have gained increasing consensus in treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. The presence of liver metastases is generally considered a contraindication for CS + HIPEC, as hepatic involvement no longer represents a loco-regional aspect of disease. Despite this, liver resection (LR) has been tested in selected cases in combination with CS + HIPEC for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with liver metastasis. Relevant studies on this topic were identified through a search in the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:362-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.37
    Published on: 21 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2639  | Downloaded:96
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting closer to prostate cancer in patients - what scientists should want from clinicians

    Norman J. Maitland
    For scientists pursuing drug development for prostate cancer, it is critical that an appropriate ex vivo or in vitro model system is available for study. Cancer research has generally consisted of: (1) finding the means to arrest fast growing cancer cells; or (2) (as a compromise) to slow down the excessive rate of cell growth; or in the best case (3) to kill the cancer cells whilst sparing the surrounding normal tissues. As the knowledge of the biological nature of the cancer cell improves, it has become increasingly apparent that such a simplistic attitude to cancer therapy development or... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:262-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.23
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1630  | Downloaded:96
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  • Review|Open Access

    Prostate cancer cells at a therapeutic gunpoint of the autophagy process

    Fabio Gabriele, Carolina Martinelli, Sergio Comincini
    In a normal prostate, the process of controling cell death is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and its inhibition may lead to the development of cancer. Androgen receptor signaling plays pivotal roles in the prostate development and homeostasis as well as in the progression of prostate cancer. The main treatment for prostate cancer is a combination of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using anti-androgens and docetaxil administration. However, ADT eventually fails due to a pathological unbalance of cell death processes, in particular apoptosis and autophagy. As a result prostate... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy and Cancer: current biology and drug development
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:17. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.06
    Published on: 19 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1707  | Downloaded:95
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  • Review|Open Access

    Centrosome aberrations and chromosome instability contribute to tumorigenesis and intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Shirley Jusino, Fabiola M. Fernández-Padín, Harold I. Saavedra
    Centrosomes serve as the major microtubule organizing centers in cells and thereby contribute to cell shape, polarity, and motility. Also, centrosomes ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis. Centrosome aberrations arise when the centrosome cycle is deregulated, or as a result of cytokinesis failure. A long-standing postulate is that centrosome aberrations are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, this notion has been a subject of controversy because until recently the relationship has been correlative. Recently, it was shown that numerical or structural... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.24
    Published on: 7 Aug 2018  | Viewed:910  | Downloaded:93
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  • Review|Open Access

    The magnitude of benefit from adding taxanes to anthracyclines in the adjuvant settings of breast cancer: discussion of large trials and meta-analyses

    Osama H. Elzaafarany, Atlal Abusanad
    The taxanes family of chemotherapy, which includes paclitaxel and docetaxel, has been incorporated in the adjuvant breast cancer treatments since 1990s. Sequential and concurrent use of taxanes was investigated with anthracyclines in many adjuvant early breast cancer randomized clinical trials. Results from taxanes trials showed inconsistent benefits. However, several meta-analyses showed significant survival benefit of adding taxanes. In this review article, data were collected and summarized from eleven large randomized trials and three meta-analyses to show and discuss the magnitude of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.55
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1113  | Downloaded:92
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of previous anti-angiogenesis treatment in nivolumab-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Takefumi Komiya, Chao H. Huang, Prakash Neupane, Stephen K. Williamson, Prabhakar Chalise
    Aim: To investigate how previous systemic therapy such as anti-angiogenesis can influence cancer immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 134 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. Correlation between status of prior anti-angiogenesis treatment and clinical characteristics were determined. Impact of prior anti-angiogenesis on therapeutic outcome of nivolumab was investigated for tumor efficacy such as progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixteen patients were treated with at least one... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:1. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.65
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1696  | Downloaded:91
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting better at treating prostate cancer: what clinicians should want from scientists

    Malcolm Mason
    If the treatment landscape for prostate cancer is to be transformed, clinicians and scientists must work together ever more closely. Prostate cancer defeats physicians when patients are not accurately stratified according to patients’ risk of dying of disease, when the effects of tumor heterogeneity are insufficiently understood, and when attempts at therapy by clinicians spur further disease evolution and the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. At the same time, clinicians’ over-treat men who in reality do not need it, and some of those men needlessly suffer long term side effects as a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:271-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.51
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1481  | Downloaded:91
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  • Review|Open Access

    Significance of peritoneal lavage cytology based on genetic signatures in gastric cancer

    Tasuku Matsuoka, Masakazu Yashiro
    Peritoneal metastasis is the most common pattern of recurrence and the most frequent cause of death after surgery in patients with gastric cancer. Peritoneal free cancer cells disseminated from the primary lesion site have been considered the main cause of peritoneal metastasis. Peritoneal lavage cytological examination (PLC) has been shown to be an independent predictor of gastric cancer relapse after curative resection and poor overall survival. However, the conventional cytological examinations have high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. To improve the sensitivity,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.85
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1345  | Downloaded:87
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  • Review|Open Access

    Treatment strategy for metastatic gastric cancer in Japan

    Kojiro Eto, Satoshi Ida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Despite recent progress in diagnostic imaging, gastric cancer (GC) is occasionally found at an advanced stage with distant metastasis. As metastatic GC is difficult to cure, the treatment strategy should be considered individually based on the physical and socioeconomic status of patients as well as on the GC symptoms. The first choice of treatment for metastatic GC is chemotherapy, and several chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic or recurrent GC have been developed through randomized controlled trials. Ongoing clinical trials will provide novel therapeutic options for patients with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:23. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.73
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:971  | Downloaded:85
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells and the metastatic process: the complexity of malignancy

    Tania Di Raimo, Elena De Santis, Luigi Coppola, Mario Rosario D’Andrea, Francesco Angelini
    Despite improvements achieved in terms of early detection and therapeutic approach, metastatic breast cancer remains one of the principal worldwide causes of death. In recent years, due to the heterogeneous response of each patient to chemotherapy, clinical research highlights the need of a personalized approach. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represents a promising tool for this purpose. Unfortunately, even if their correlation with severity, outcome and metastatic nature of the tumor has been established, several issues, mainly concerning their
    characterization and isolation, need to be
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:54. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.50
    Published on: 25 Oct 2018  | Viewed:608  | Downloaded:79
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor liver metastasis in a patient with previously diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an unexpected diagnosis

    Mário Fontes-Sousa, Helena Magalhães, Bianca Machado, Olga Sousa, Manuela Machado
    Locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma has an usually poor prognosis despite multimodal approaches and sequential chemotherapy. The authors present a case of a long-term survivor with stage III pancreatic adenocarcinoma achieving partial response after a multimodal approach including local and systemic treatments. However, three years after diagnosis and amidst several episodes of cholangitis, hepatic metastasis were suspected. Despite pancreatic adenocarcinoma being the obvious culprit for metastization, a hepatic biopsy was considered at that time given a stable primary disease and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.70
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:2240  | Downloaded:75
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Cancer, circulating tumor cells, and metastasis: could protein-derived peptide fragments impede brain metastases?

    Gerald J. Mizejewski
    The majority of cancer deaths can be attributed to cancer cell metastases that migrate to distant target organs. Brain metastases constitute one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients, occurring in about 40% of patients with metastatic disease. Thus, there exists an unmet need for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment directed against early stage cancer cell metastasis. Previous studies have reported the development of methods to detect and identify early circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream prior to their seeding into distant organs. Using a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.20
    Published on: 11 Jun 2018  | Viewed:981  | Downloaded:68
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Nodal involvement and p16-staining in upper alveolar ridge and hard palate cancer

    Edgar Salas, Pedro Sanchez, Juan Postigo, Carlos A. Castaneda, Miluska Castillo, Valeria Villegas, Luis Cano, Sandro Casavilca, Luis A. Bernabe, Carolina Belmar, Maria R. Villa-Robles, Raul Mantilla, Henry Guerra
    Aim: Upper alveolar ridge and hard palate squamous cancer is an infrequent malignancy. We evaluated factors associated with neck involvement and with p16-staining. Methods: Head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) patients who went to Head and Neck Department between 1997 and 2011 were screened, and 73 resected upper alveolar ridge and 5 hard palate SCC were selected. Tumors with available tissue were stained with p16 immunohistochemistry. Results: Median age was 64.4 years, 55.1% were female, and 73.1% were in clinical stage IV. Neck dissections were performed in 24 and pathologically... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:15. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.66
    Published on: 28 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1199  | Downloaded:63
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreatic cancer: treatment approaches and trends

    Nabyla Paixão Pereira, José Raimundo Corrêa
    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most challenging diseases due to its often late diagnose which results in limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. To date, the only curative treatment is complete tumor removal surgery but only a few patients are eligible to do it. The median survival period after surgery followed by chemotherapy adjuvant treatment is about 2 years. Since its approval by the FDA, Gemcitabine has become the first-line chemotherapy agent for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. The FOLFIRINOX regimen is also used as a treatment scheme for pancreatic cancer; however,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.13
    Published on: 25 Jun 2018  | Viewed:782  | Downloaded:61
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  • Letter|Open Access

    Hypoxia in prostate cancer

    Peter Vaupel
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.30
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:406  | Downloaded:61
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  • Review|Open Access

    NSAID celecoxib: a potent mitochondrial pro-oxidant cytotoxic agent sensitizing metastatic cancers and cancer stem cells to chemotherapy

    Stephen John Ralph, Sam Nozuhur, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Rhys Pritchard
    Intermittent hypoxia within tumor microenvironments causes pro-oxidative stress impairing oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In primary tumors this provokes metabolic reprogramming of both tumor cells and cancer stem cells and emergence of highly metastatic cancer cells. Tumor reprogramming is initiated by activating nuclear respiratory factors and hypoxia-inducible factors in response to changes in oxygen and ROS levels. Hence, hypoxia-induced pro-oxidative stress drives invasion and metastasis. However, it is also... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:49. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:1145  | Downloaded:60
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  • Review|Open Access

    Management of metastatic esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    Tasuku Toihata, Yu Imamura, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    The prognosis of metastatic disease of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma remains poor, despite using a variety of regimens using cytotoxic agents. Recent understanding of molecular characteristic and tumor microenvironment of this cancer is currently instigating new therapeutic options. In this review, we summarized previous evidences of cytotoxic agents widely used worldwide, and updated recent developments of molecular targeted drugs, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:24. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.82
    Published on: 17 May 2018  | Viewed:744  | Downloaded:47
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Bioconjugate structures vs. composite nanoparticulate carriers: the battle for the future of smart, effective and safe cancer management

    Mohamed Ismail Nounou
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:29. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.18
    Published on: 21 Jun 2018  | Viewed:486  | Downloaded:45
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy for gastric cancer

    Rie Makuuchi, Tomoyuki Irino, Yutaka Tanizawa, Etsuro Bando, Taiichi Kawamura, Masanori Terashima
    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is performed to achieve an R0 resection for gastric cancer with pancreatic and/or duodenal invasion. Several retrospective case series have been published, but the sample cohorts in each study were heterogeneous and small. Moreover, the absence of prospective studies results in a lack of solid evidence that will help determine who can benefit from this procedure. Although the morbidity and mortality of PD have been reported by most studies to be acceptable and that the procedure is feasible, these remained to be much higher than those of standard gastrectomy.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.15
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:591  | Downloaded:40
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Malignant field expression signatures in biopsy samples at diagnosis predict the likelihood of lethal disease in patients with localized prostate cancer

    Gennadi V. Glinsky
    Aim: Overtreatment of early-stage low-risk prostate cancer patients represents a significant problem in disease management and has significant socio-economic implications. Changes in prostate cancer screening and treatment practices in the United States have been associated with the recent decline in overall incidence and concomitant significant increase of the annual incidence of metastatic prostate cancer has been documented. Therefore, development of genetic and molecular markers of clinically significant disease in patients diagnosed with low grade localized prostate cancer would have a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:177-89. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.43
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2123  | Downloaded:32
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of taxanes: a case report

    Nasser Mohammed Amer, Rabia Niaz
    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare complication of chemotherapy, however, few reports were published as a specific complication of taxanes. We are reporting this rare complication of a lady who was treated with taxanes as an adjuvant therapy for her breast cancer who was referred to us from the medical department and turned out to be necrotizing fasciitis in her right thigh. We are also presenting the literature review of this type of complication. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:34. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.09
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:430  | Downloaded:31
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Anti-oxidation properties of leaves, skin, pulp, and seeds extracts from green papaya and their anti-cancer activities in breast cancer cells

    Shrefa A. Hadadi, Haiwen Li, Reza Rafie, Paul Kaseloo, Sarah M. Witiak, Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: Breast cancer is typically detected either during a screening examination or after a woman notices a lump. Breast cancers have different phenotypes depending on the presence/absence of an estrogen receptor (ER) and/or an epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptor. The objective of the present investigation was to investigate growth inhibitory activity of methanol-, ethanol-, and water-extracts from papaya fruit and leaves on MDA-MB-231 (ER-/Her-2-), MCF-7 (ER+/Her-2-), SK-BR- 3 (ER-/Her-2+) and MDA-MB-361, AU565 (ER+/Her-2+) breast cancer cells. Methods: The anti-oxidation potential of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:25. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.22
    Published on: 30 May 2018  | Viewed:702  | Downloaded:28
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cryptic NUP214-ABL1 fusion with complex karyotype, episomes and intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Moneeb A.K Othman, Beate Grygalewicz, Agnieszka Kołkowska-Leśniak, Joana B. Melo, Isabel M. Carreira, Thomas Liehr
    T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and little is known about their molecular background. However, complex karyotypes were already related to this group of malignancy and associated with poor outcome. Here, we describe a 17-year-old female being diagnosed with T-LBL and a normal karyotype after standard G-banding with trypsin-Giemsa (GTG)-banding. However, further analyses including high-resolution molecular approaches, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, fluorescence in situ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:50. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.41
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:714  | Downloaded:27
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Secondary malignancy estimation in patients after mastectomy and adjuvant therapy

    Oludare Folajimi Adeyemi, Okhuomaruyi David Osahon, Enosakhare Godwin Okungbowa
    Aim: Secondary malignancy estimation after radiotherapy of post mastectomy patients is becoming an important subject for comparative treatment planning. The data from modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patients, thereby opening up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. Methods: This study estimates the probability of secondary malignancy using radiobiological model for post mastectomy patients in a low-resource center, Nigeria. The secondary cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:53. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.12
    Published on: 8 Oct 2018  | Viewed:557  | Downloaded:25
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction to the special issue on reviews of gastric cancer metastasis and treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:48. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.60
    Published on: 17 Sep 2018  | Viewed:430  | Downloaded:25
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Two sides to colon cancer: mice mimic human anatomical region disparity in colon cancer development and progression

    Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Aaron C. Shang, Shien Hu, Shannon M. Larabee, Cinthia B. Drachenberg, Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Aim: Strong evidence reveals important differences between cancers in the proximal vs. distal colon. Animal models of metastatic colon cancer are available but with varying degrees of reproducibility and several important limitations. We explored whether there were regional differences in the location of murine colon cancers and assessed the utility of murine models to explore the biological basis for such differences. Methods: We re-analyzed data from our previous studies to assess the regional distribution of murine colon cancer. In survival surgery experiments, we injected HT-29 human... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:51. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.39
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:520  | Downloaded:22
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor cell invasion from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins during early-stage lymph node metastasis can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis

    Tetsuya Kodama, Shiro Mori, Masato Nose
    Aim: To investigate whether tumor cells in a lymph node (LN) can invade from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins via vessel branches that communicate with intranodal veins and whether this can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis at the early stage of LN metastasis. Methods: Vascular and lymphatic networks of LNs in MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice were investigated using three-dimensional micro-computed tomography and histological methods. Flow in the blood vessel networks of LNs was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. Tumor cells were injected into the subiliac LNs of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:56. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.61
    Published on: 9 Nov 2018  | Viewed:285  | Downloaded:21
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  • Perspective|Open Access

    Pharmacogenetics and cancer management

    Harish Padh
    The science of one’s genetic background and its impact on disease susceptibility and drug response has come of age and firmly established its proper place in the clinic. Its impact is felt more in the treatment of cancer than any other disease area several reasons: critical time, narrow therapeutic index and overlapping toxicity window. We realize that the true potential of pharmacogenetics will be realized when we have been able to integrate other variants like insertion-deletion, copy number variation, etc., in addition to single nucleotide polymorphism for their collective influence on... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics