Most Viewed: Last ONE YEAR
  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Targeting cerebrospinal fluid for discovery of brain cancer biomarkers

    Tarek Shalaby , Federica Achini , Michael A. Grotzer
    Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is a devastating illness with unmet therapeutic needs. Establishing biomarkers that have the potential to guide accurate CNS cancer diagnosis or are helpful in predicting disease progression or therapy response is of great interest. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been extensively targeted for the detection of molecules that might be useful markers for cancer detection. However, so far very few of such markers have found a standardized routine clinical application. This review examines the current scientific knowledge about the biochemical elements in the...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 7760
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells

    Yu Jeong Kim , Elizabeth L. Siegler , Natnaree Siriwon , Pin Wang
    The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs present a challenge for cancer therapy; these shortcomings are largely attributed to the ability of cancer cells to repopulate and metastasize after initial therapies. Compelling evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact in current shortcomings of cancer therapy because they are largely responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the properties and mechanisms underlying CSC resistance to treatments is necessary to improve patient...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 5594
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  • Review

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong , Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 5331
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada , Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 5099
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Dissecting brain tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and ex vivo

    Michael A. Grotzer , Anuja Neve , Martin Baumgartner
    Local infiltration and distal dissemination of tumor cells hamper efficacy of current treatments against central nervous system (CNS) tumors and greatly influence mortality and therapy-induced long-term morbidity in survivors. A number of in vitro and ex vivo assay systems have been established to better understand the infiltration and metastatic processes, to search for molecules that specifically block tumor cell infiltration and metastatic dissemination and to pre-clinically evaluate their efficaciousness. These systems allow analytical testing of tumor cell viability and motile and...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 4650
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  • Review

    Muscarinic receptor signaling and colon cancer progression

    Guofeng Xie , Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Due to the lack of effective treatments, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Emerging evidence supports the observation that muscarinic receptor (MR) signaling plays a critical role in growth and progression of CRC. MR activation by acetylcholine and bile acids results in transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and post-EGFR signal transduction that enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, the authors review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MR-mediated CRC...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
    Views: 2974
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  • Case Report

    An unusual case of encapsulated papillary carcinoma of breast

    Kriti Chauhan , Monika Garg
    Intracystic (encapsulated) papillary carcinoma of breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. It is usually a low-grade tumor showing estrogen, progesterone positivity. The authors report an unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma showing high nuclear grade, brisk mitosis, and necrosis with triple negativity for estrogen, progesterone, and Her-2/neu receptors, as well as negative axillary lymph nodes. Such cases need to be reported to increase awareness so that they will be managed conservatively, avoiding any overtreatment despite being high grade and triple negative.
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
    Views: 2432
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex disease

    Rossana Berardi
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
    Views: 2000
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  • Review

    The features of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer

    Gianni Mura , Beatrice Verdelli
    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) from metastasization of Gastric Cancer (GC), either present at first diagnosis of GC or as recurrence, is considered a fatal disease with no hope of definitive cure. Although newer agents like S1 and docetaxel have shown some promise, the median overall survival with the current first line chemotherapy is only 8 to 14 months, and is not greatly improved by adding targeted therapy. A multi-modal approach with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed along the last two decades in order to...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 1963
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  • Original Article

    Oxidative stress and breast cancer biomarkers: the case of the cytochrome P450 2E1

    Subir Singh , Ramkumar Rajendran , Kengo Kuroda , Emiko Isogai , Marija Krstic-Demonacos , Constantinos Demonacos
    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the cytochrome P450 2E1, which is the most efficient CYP450 family member in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), on cellular energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and therefore the effects of CYP2E1 on breast carcinogenesis. Methods: The estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used as experimental system to estimate ROS generation in these cells overexpressing CYP2E1 and treated with the glycolytic inhibitors 3-bromopyruvate or 2-deoxyglucose in the presence or absence of...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
    Views: 1866
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Curcumin sensitizes quiescent leukemic cells to antimitotic drug 5-fluorouracil by inducing proliferative responses in them

    Anagha Gardane , Mariyah Poonawala , Anuradha Vaidya
    Long-term quiescence or dormancy is a fundamental feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are genetically identical to the malignant clone but constitute the only cells with tumor propagation potential within the overall tumor population. These quiescent cells show significant resistance to radiation and antiproliferative chemotherapy due to distinctive properties that seem to be related to their stem cell-like character. Hence, successful anticancer therapy must consist of approaches that can target not only the differentiated cancer cells, but also the CSCs. Using serum-starved KG1a cell...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 1606
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  • Review

    The role of human papillomaviruses in cancer progression

    Pinar Tulay , Nedime Serakinci
    The importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its role in the progress of cancer have been widely evaluated. The understanding of HPV association with certain cancers, such as cervical cancer, is very well established. A big step forward in the prevention of HPV associated cancers with the use of early detection by screening strategies has also been taken. In the last decade, development of HPV vaccination has reduced the number of cases in HPV infections and infection induced cancers. In this report, we review the HPV pathogenesis and highlight the mechanism of HPV involvement...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
    Views: 1551
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  • Review

    Targeting Toll-like receptors against cancer

    Bing Du , Qiu-Li Jiang , Joseph Cleveland , Bing-Rong Liu , Dekai Zhang
    The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) about 20 years ago was a remarkable achievement not only in the field of immunology but also in the field of medicine. The TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors which play an important role in immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLRs also recognize danger-associated molecular patterns, which are associated with some diseases such as cancer. Recent evidence shows that TLRs are expressed not only in immune cells but also in tumor cells. The TLRs appear to play a role in tumor progression and...
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016
    Views: 1541
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  • Review

    Nanocarrier drugs in the treatment of brain tumors

    Tereza Cerna , Marie Stiborova , Vojtech Adam , Rene Kizek , Tomas Eckschlager
    Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of drugs might significantly reduce the dosage and optimize their release properties, increase specificity and bioavailability, improve shelf life, and reduce toxicity. Some nanodrugs are able to overcome the blood-brain barrier that is an obstacle to treatment of brain tumors. Vessels in tumors have abnormal architecture and are highly permeable; moreover, tumors also have poor lymphatic drainage, allowing for accumulation of macromolecules greater than approximately 40 kDa within the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles exploit this feature, known...
    Published on: 31 Oct 2016
    Views: 1362
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  • Original Article

    Evaluation of anti-metastatic effect of chitosan nanoparticles on esophageal cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Pravin D. Potdar , Aashutosh U. Shetti
    Aim: Esophageal cancer is one of the major types of cancers, causing death of approximately 5% of all cancer deaths. This is due, in large part, to both relatively ineffectual and unavailable treatment. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy against esophageal cancer, it is important to target metastatic genes. In the present study, we have used a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell line derived from culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient to see whether chitosan nanoparticles (Ch-Np) treatment can modulate the metastatic...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
    Views: 1361
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  • Original Article

    Sunitinib effectiveness and safety as first line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in the Costa Rican population

    Esteban Gonzalez , Silvia Alfaro , Allan Ramos-Esquivel , Denis Ulises Landaverde
    Aim: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are part of the armamentarium to treat metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC). Costa Rica has approved sunitinib in the first line setting. The authors conducted a retrospective study to address the effectiveness and safety profile of sunitinib in our population in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Methods: The authors analyzed all patients who were treated with sunitinib diagnosed with mRCC in the three National Hospitals (Hospital Mexico, Hospital San Juan de Dios, and Hospital Calderon Guardia) from February 2007 to June...
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016
    Views: 1353
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Interdisciplinary management of central nervous system metastasis and neoplastic meningitis: recent developments and future perspectives

    Ghazaleh Tabatabai , Marilin Koch , Cristiana Roggia , Juliane Ebert , Claus Garbe , Friedegund Meier , Sara Brucker , Eva Maria Grischke , Diethelm Wallwiener , Robert Möhle , Lothar Kanz , Walter Erich Auletzky , Ulrike Ernemann , Christian LaFougere , Konstantin Nikolaou , Bernd Pichler , Jens Schittenhelm , Manuela Neumann , Falko Fend , Stefan Czemmel , Sven Nahnsen , Frank Paulsen , Daniel Zips , Maike van Lessen , Hans-Otto Karnath , Ulf Ziemann , Hans-Georg Rammensee , Constantin Roder , Marco Skardelly , Jürgen Bernd Honegger , Marcos Tatagiba
    The incidence of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS) is rising. According to current estimates, up to a third of adult cancer patients will suffer from CNS metastasis. Clinical evidence-based data from prospective randomized trials are rare, however, because CNS metastasis patients were often excluded from clinical trial participation. The management of CNS metastasis patients is therefore rather ill-defined and an interdisciplinary challenge. Recent basic and translational science data have begun contributing to a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 1313
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Gemcitabine followed by radiotherapy in treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas

    Maha El-Naggar , Mervat Omar , Ahmed Elgeriany , Godefridus J. Peters , Amina Mostafa , Samir Shehata
    Aim: High-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor median overall survival (OS). The standard treatment after surgery is temozolomide and radiotherapy (RTH). Patients with unmethylated methylguanine-methyltransferase promoter (MGMT) have no or little benefit from temozolomide and are eligible for alternative therapies. Gemcitabine is a good radiosensitizer. We aimed to evaluate the combination of gemcitabine with RTH in newly diagnosed GBM. Methods: The study was a prospective phase II study. Eligible patients were required to have histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma or GBM....
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 1164
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Medical therapy for advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

    Mariangela Torniai , Silvia Rinaldi , Francesca Morgese , Giulia Ricci , Azzurra Onofri , Christian Grohé , Rossana Berardi
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a spectrum of rare neoplasms arising in different organism sites. Depending on the site of onset, they also can be distinguished using lab exams (secreting vs. nonsecreting), clinical symptoms (functioning vs. nonfunctioning), behavioral, morphological characteristics (tumor cells’ architectural growth patterns, mitotic and Ki-67 index, presence of necrosis), and grade of cellular differentiation. The aim of this review is to focus on the main signaling pathways targeted by medical treatments of advanced sporadic gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 1140
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers. Why? When? How? Suggestions for clinical practice from guidelines and consensus

    Paola Razzore , Giorgio Arnaldi
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NETs) are rare tumors that are increasing in incidence. NETs are characterized by heterogeneous biological behaviour, clinical presentation and course. A sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic circulating biomarker useful for all sites, grading and staging of neuroendocrine tumors is still an unmet need. The aim of this article was to review current neuroendocrine and oncologic scientific society guidelines and position statements, and propose recommendations for the most frequent clinical practice queries on circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers....
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 1043
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