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  • Review

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong , Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 8504
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada , Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 5731
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  • Review

    The features of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer

    Gianni Mura , Beatrice Verdelli
    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) from metastasization of Gastric Cancer (GC), either present at first diagnosis of GC or as recurrence, is considered a fatal disease with no hope of definitive cure. Although newer agents like S1 and docetaxel have shown some promise, the median overall survival with the current first line chemotherapy is only 8 to 14 months, and is not greatly improved by adding targeted therapy. A multi-modal approach with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed along the last two decades in order to...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 3825
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  • Review

    Targeting Toll-like receptors against cancer

    Bing Du , Qiu-Li Jiang , Joseph Cleveland , Bing-Rong Liu , Dekai Zhang
    The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) about 20 years ago was a remarkable achievement not only in the field of immunology but also in the field of medicine. The TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors which play an important role in immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLRs also recognize danger-associated molecular patterns, which are associated with some diseases such as cancer. Recent evidence shows that TLRs are expressed not only in immune cells but also in tumor cells. The TLRs appear to play a role in tumor progression and...
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016
    Views: 2632
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  • Original Article

    Oxidative stress and breast cancer biomarkers: the case of the cytochrome P450 2E1

    Subir Singh , Ramkumar Rajendran , Kengo Kuroda , Emiko Isogai , Marija Krstic-Demonacos , Constantinos Demonacos
    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the cytochrome P450 2E1, which is the most efficient CYP450 family member in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), on cellular energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and therefore the effects of CYP2E1 on breast carcinogenesis. Methods: The estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used as experimental system to estimate ROS generation in these cells overexpressing CYP2E1 and treated with the glycolytic inhibitors 3-bromopyruvate or 2-deoxyglucose in the presence or absence of...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
    Views: 2447
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex disease

    Rossana Berardi
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
    Views: 2081
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  • Review

    Nanocarrier drugs in the treatment of brain tumors

    Tereza Cerna , Marie Stiborova , Vojtech Adam , Rene Kizek , Tomas Eckschlager
    Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of drugs might significantly reduce the dosage and optimize their release properties, increase specificity and bioavailability, improve shelf life, and reduce toxicity. Some nanodrugs are able to overcome the blood-brain barrier that is an obstacle to treatment of brain tumors. Vessels in tumors have abnormal architecture and are highly permeable; moreover, tumors also have poor lymphatic drainage, allowing for accumulation of macromolecules greater than approximately 40 kDa within the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles exploit this feature, known...
    Published on: 31 Oct 2016
    Views: 2026
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Medical therapy for advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

    Mariangela Torniai , Silvia Rinaldi , Francesca Morgese , Giulia Ricci , Azzurra Onofri , Christian Grohé , Rossana Berardi
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a spectrum of rare neoplasms arising in different organism sites. Depending on the site of onset, they also can be distinguished using lab exams (secreting vs. nonsecreting), clinical symptoms (functioning vs. nonfunctioning), behavioral, morphological characteristics (tumor cells’ architectural growth patterns, mitotic and Ki-67 index, presence of necrosis), and grade of cellular differentiation. The aim of this review is to focus on the main signaling pathways targeted by medical treatments of advanced sporadic gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 1726
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers. Why? When? How? Suggestions for clinical practice from guidelines and consensus

    Paola Razzore , Giorgio Arnaldi
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NETs) are rare tumors that are increasing in incidence. NETs are characterized by heterogeneous biological behaviour, clinical presentation and course. A sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic circulating biomarker useful for all sites, grading and staging of neuroendocrine tumors is still an unmet need. The aim of this article was to review current neuroendocrine and oncologic scientific society guidelines and position statements, and propose recommendations for the most frequent clinical practice queries on circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers....
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 1642
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  • Original Article

    Evaluation of anti-metastatic effect of chitosan nanoparticles on esophageal cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Pravin D. Potdar , Aashutosh U. Shetti
    Aim: Esophageal cancer is one of the major types of cancers, causing death of approximately 5% of all cancer deaths. This is due, in large part, to both relatively ineffectual and unavailable treatment. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy against esophageal cancer, it is important to target metastatic genes. In the present study, we have used a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell line derived from culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient to see whether chitosan nanoparticles (Ch-Np) treatment can modulate the metastatic...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
    Views: 1633
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  • Original Article

    Sunitinib effectiveness and safety as first line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in the Costa Rican population

    Esteban Gonzalez , Silvia Alfaro , Allan Ramos-Esquivel , Denis Ulises Landaverde
    Aim: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are part of the armamentarium to treat metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC). Costa Rica has approved sunitinib in the first line setting. The authors conducted a retrospective study to address the effectiveness and safety profile of sunitinib in our population in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Methods: The authors analyzed all patients who were treated with sunitinib diagnosed with mRCC in the three National Hospitals (Hospital Mexico, Hospital San Juan de Dios, and Hospital Calderon Guardia) from February 2007 to June...
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016
    Views: 1571
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  • Review

    DNA damage-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and its roles in cancer progression

    Wei Wang , Arul M. Mani , Zhao-Hui Wu
    DNA damage is a vital challenge to cell homeostasis. Cellular responses to DNA damage (DDR) play essential roles in maintaining genomic stability and survival, whose failure could lead to detrimental consequences such as cancer development and aging. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that plays critical roles in cellular stress response. Along with p53, NF-kB modulates transactivation of a large number of genes which participate in various cellular processes involved in DDR. Here the authors summarize the recent progress in understanding DNA damage response...
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017
    Views: 1282
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: current therapies, notch signaling, and cancer stem cells

    Judy S. Crabtree , Lucio Miele
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies all derived from neuroendocrine cell lineage, affecting many different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the endocrine pancreas, the thyroid, the skin and the respiratory tract. These tumors as a group are very heterogeneous, with varying characteristics attributed to each tissue of origin and tumor subtype. The pathogenesis of the different subtypes of NETs is not fully understood, but recent studies suggest the Notch signaling pathway may be dysregulated in these tumors either by under or...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
    Views: 1252
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    A versatile method for enumeration and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with breast cancer

    Ujjwala M. Warawdekar , Vani Parmar , Aruna Prabhu , Abhay Kulkarni , Meenal Chaudhari , Rajendra A. Badwe
    Aim: To establish a standardized protocol for the isolation and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: The protocol used tumor cells spiked in a lymphoid cell line with detection by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Cells of the human mammary cancer subtypes were spiked into Jurkat cells, which served as the lymphocyte designate in numbers from 10 to 500 per 105 Jurkat cells. This mixed population was probed for CD45, EpCAM, and pancytokeratin acquired...
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017
    Views: 1187
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Merkel cell carcinoma responsive to Etoposide: a case report and brief literature review

    Chiara Ancona , Andrea Caff , Giovanni Manfredi Assanto , Stefano Cordio
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), first described in 1972, is an aggressive primary cutaneous carcinoma able to incorporate both epithelial and neuroendocrine features. MCC mainly appears in individuals in their eighth decade and it is related to a high mortality rate. The etiology of this rare disease is not well-understood but ultraviolet radiation exposure, immune suppression, and aging have a consistent role in its pathogenesis. Usually, clinical lesions appear as asymptomatic coloured dermal nodules. The tumour can involve lymph nodes but further evaluation with imaging is recommended. The...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
    Views: 1049
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  • Original Article

    Do elderly NSCLC stage IV patients benefit from chemotherapy as well as younger? An analysis from clinical practice date

    Regina Gironés , Pedro López , Rebeca Chulvi , Mamen Cañabate
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment related to age in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared young and elders (> 70) in the setting of a regional Spanish hospital. We hypothesized that elder benefit as much as younger patients from chemotherapy in stage IV NSCLC. The study was limited to performance status 0-2. Methods: Clinical and demographic characteristics were reviewed form medical records. Type of treatment was collected and compared, as well as benefit from treatment, in terms of overall survival. Results: 322 patients (162...
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016
    Views: 1010
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    Profiling of circulating tumor cells in liquid biopsies from metastatic cancer patients

    Pravin D. Potdar , Keerti Sen
    Aim: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are crucial to tumor metastasis and valuable for prediction of clinical outcome in patients with solid tumors. Here, the authors aimed to establish a method for enumeration and characterization of CTCs from liquid biopsies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated from blood samples from patients with metastatic cancer using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and cultured to isolate and enumerate CTCs. Cultured CTCs were morphologically characterized by light and phase contrast microscopy. The tumorigenicity of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated...
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017
    Views: 955
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic clostridial myonecrosis secondary to perforated metastatic bowel cancer

    Nasser Mohammed Amer , John Karayanis
    Spontaneous metastatic clostridial myonecrosis is a rare condition caused by Clostridium septicum. The underlying lesion is usually either a colonic neoplasm or leukemia. The authors reported a 67-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen secondary to a perforated sigmoid cancer and who developed gas gangrene in her right leg. Unfortunately, despite all resuscitative measures, she died. The authors reviewed the literature; the diagnosis of metastatic myonecrosis was based on a high index of suspicion, development of bullae containing gram-positive rods, and subcutaneous crepitus...
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016
    Views: 952
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  • Review

    Cytogenetic and molecular basis of BCR-ABL myelodysplastic syndrome: diagnosis and prognostic approach

    Mostafa Paridar , Omid Kiani Ghalesardi , Mohammad Seghatoleslami , Ahmad Ahmadzadeh , Abbas Khosravi , Najmaldin Saki
    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a heterogeneous group of blood disorders generally afflicting older people. Several genetic factors have been reported from these patients that have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. BCR-ABL1 is a genetic factor that has occasionally been reported in some studies. This review attempts to characterize MDS patients reported to harbor this fusion and to assess the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic potential of BCR-ABL1 fusionin MDS patients. This review showed that BCR-ABL fusion has been reported in 22...
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017
    Views: 860
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Management of hepatic metastases of well/moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract

    Anna La Salvia , Stefano Partelli , Marco Tampellini , Domenico Tamburrino , Massimo Falconi , Giorgio V. Scagliotti , Maria Pia Brizzi
    In neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), liver metastases (LM) represent the most crucial prognostic factor, irrespective of the primary tumor site. At diagnosis, about 65-95% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show hepatic metastasis. Management strategies of LM are heterogeneous and range from systemic therapy to liver-directed procedures. The type of systemic therapy used is dependent on the grade and proliferation of the tumor and includes somatostatin analogues, interferon, m-Tor and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Angiographic liver-directed techniques,...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
    Views: 847
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