Most Viewed: Last ONE YEAR
  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunotherapy: a brief review of the history, possibilities, and challenges ahead

    Stanley J. Oiseth , Mohamed S. Aziz
    The knowledge that the body possesses natural defenses to combat cancer existed long before the modern period, with multiple anecdotal reports of tumors miraculously disappearing, sometimes spontaneously or after a febrile or infectious episode. Spontaneous tumor regression of untreated malignant tumors is currently a well-accepted albeit rare phenomenon, and it is recognized that immunosuppression is associated with a higher cancer risk. The treatment of bladder carcinoma by intravesical administration of live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin bacteria was shown to be very effective in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:250-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.41
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:10824  | Downloaded:1800
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Real-time quantitative PCR array to study drug-induced changes of gene expression in tumor cell lines

    Stefano Amatori , Giuseppe Persico , Mirco Fanelli
    Aim: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is still the “gold standard” for quantitative analysis of mRNA and the study of differentially expressed genes. Methods: The authors describe a RT-qPCR array that exploits SYBR Green dye-based detection to perform reliable gene expression analysis on 41 genes involved in several pathways linked to DNA damage response, cell cycle progression, cellular senescence, and programmed cell death. To validate the RT-qPCR array, the authors investigated changes of the gene expression profile of HeLa cells treated with two... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:90-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.22
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:4287  | Downloaded:268
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  • Review|Open Access

    Bacteria in cancer therapy: beyond immunostimulation

    Wheeler Torres , Víctor Lameda , Luis Carlos Olivar , Carla Navarro , Jorge Fuenmayor , Adrián Pérez , Andres Mindiola , Milagros Rojas , María Sofía Martínez , Manuel Velasco , Joselyn Rojas , Valmore Bermudez
    Currently, conventional therapies in cancer are improving; chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have increased survival significantly. New therapies have arisen with the same goal; immunotherapy has appeared as a promising option in the fight against cancer stimulating the immune system by inducing innate and adaptive responses. These responses include release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, making the immune system capable to eliminate or protect against multiple tumors. Nowadays, many of these therapies are being used in clinical settings, such as checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal anti... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.49
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:4146  | Downloaded:374
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Papaya black seeds have beneficial anticancer effects on PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    Khalid S. Alotaibi , Haiwen Li , Reza Rafi , Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: The study investigated the effect of papaya seeds on prostate cancer (PC) using PC-3 cell line because papaya seeds have effects on the male reproductive system notably decreasing sperm concentration, motility, and viability, leading to azoospermia after short-to-long-term treatment. Methods: The black seeds from yellow (ripe) papaya and white seeds from green (unripe) papaya were harvested and then extracted in water, 80% methanol, and hexane. The cytotoxic effects of seeds extracts were determined using a WST-1 proliferation assay. The amount of total polyphenols was determined using... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:161-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.33
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:3653  | Downloaded:190
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Androgen-AR axis in primary and metastatic prostate cancer: chasing steroidogenic enzymes for therapeutic intervention

    Agnese C. Pippione , Donatella Boschi , Klaus Pors , Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso , Marco L. Lolli
    Androgens play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the front-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer, patients eventually relapse with the lethal form of the disease. The prostate tumor microenvironment is characterised by elevated tissue androgens that are capable of activating the androgen receptor (AR). Inhibiting the steroidogenic enzymes that play vital roles in the biosynthesis of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) seems to be an attractive strategy for PCa therapies. Emerging data... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:328-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.44
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3424  | Downloaded:90
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of adenosine in tumor progression: focus on A2B receptor as potential therapeutic target

    Claudia Sorrentino , Silvana Morello
    Adenosine receptors are a family of G-coupled receptors which mediate the anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive effects of adenosine in a damaged tissue. A large number of evidence indicate that the accumulation of adenosine under hypoxic conditions favors tumor progression, helping cancer cells to evade immune responses. Tumor cells and/or lymphoid and myeloid cells can express the adenosine-generating enzyme CD73 and/or A2A receptor, which in turn strongly suppresses an effective T-cell-mediated response, while promotes the activity of suppressive cells such as Treg and myeloid-derived... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:127-38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.29
    Published on: 17 Jul 2017  | Viewed:3257  | Downloaded:381
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Prostate cancer exosomes as modulators of the tumor microenvironment

    Alex P. Shephard , Vincent Yeung , Aled Clayton , Jason P. Webber
    Researchers are currently trying to understand why some men with prostate cancer go on to develop aggressive disease whilst others maintain slow growing tumors. Although endogenous genetic anomalies within the tumor cell are important, the prevailing view is that the tissue microenvironment as a whole is the determinant factor. Many studies have focussed on the role of soluble factors in modulating the nature of the tumor microenvironment. There is however a growing interest in the role of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, as regulators of disease progression. A variety of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:288-301. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.32
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3211  | Downloaded:204
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  • Review|Open Access

    A primer on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on neoantigen vaccines

    Taku A. Tokuyasu , Jian-Dong Huang
    Cancer immunotherapy has now been conclusively shown to be capable of producing durable responses for a substantial number of patients. Adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint blockade therapies in particular both demonstrate that antigen-specific immune responses can be dramatically effective, even in previously refractory late stage disease. Such developments, together with advances in technology, have strongly encouraged revisiting the concept of neoantigen vaccines. Here we introduce basic ideas in the field to allow investigators from diverse backgrounds to understand these developments,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.52
    Published on: 18 Jan 2018  | Viewed:3084  | Downloaded:197
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    TGF-β stimulation of EMT programs elicits non-genomic ER-α activity and anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer cells

    Maozhen Tian , William P. Schiemann
    Aim: Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) activation drives the progression of luminal breast cancers. Signaling by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) typically opposes the actions of ER-α; it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs that promote breast cancer dissemination, stemness and chemoresistance. The impact of EMT programs on nongenomic ER-α signaling remains unknown and was studied herein. Methods: MCF-7 and BT474 cells were stimulated with TGF-β to induce EMT programs, at which point ER-α expression, localization, and nongenomic interactions with receptor tyrosine... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:150-60. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.38
    Published on: 21 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2938  | Downloaded:144
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance - implications for future treatments of prostate cancer

    Fiona M. Frame , Amanda R. Noble , Sandra Klein , Hannah F. Walker , Rakesh Suman , Richard Kasprowicz , Vin M. Mann , Matt S. Simms , Norman J. Maitland
    Aim: To develop new therapies for prostate cancer, disease heterogeneity must be addressed. This includes patient variation, multi-focal disease, cellular heterogeneity, genomic changes and epigenetic modification. This requires more representative models to be used in more innovative ways. Methods: This study used a panel of cell lines and primary prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from patient tissue. Several assays were used; alamar blue, colony forming assays, γH2AX and Ki67 immunofluorescence and comet assays. Ptychographic quantitative phase imaging (QPI), a label-free imaging... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:302-14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.34
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2768  | Downloaded:263
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  • Review|Open Access

    Using circulating tumor cells to advance precision medicine in prostate cancer

    Giuseppe Galletti , Daniel Worroll , David M. Nanus , Paraskevi Giannakakou
    The field of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment has seen many emerging technologies in recent years, which have resulted in the identification and monitoring of clinically relevant, CTC-based biomarkers that can be analyzed routinely without invasive procedures. Several molecular platforms have been used to investigate the molecular profile of the disease, from high throughput gene expression analyses down to single cell biological dissection. The established presence of CTC heterogeneity nevertheless constitutes a challenge for cell isolation as the several subpopulations can... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:190-205. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.45
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2048  | Downloaded:142
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Management of choroidal metastasis using external beam radiotherapy: a retrospective study and review of the literature

    Zakaria Ahmed Youbi , Enachescu Ciprian , Caraivan Ionela , Bennani Zineb , Khounigere Majdouline , Kotzki Léa , Pialat Pierre-Marie , Sesques Pierre , Yossi Séna
    Aim: Choroidal metastases are rare in the evolution of solid cancers and constitute exceptional metastatic sites involving functional visual prognosis. The authors conducted a retrospective study to determine the interest of external radiotherapy for the treatment of choroidal metastases. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 28 patients with choroidal metastases who had breast (n = 15), lung (n = 9), ovarian (n = 1), kidney (n = 1), prostate (n = 1) cancer or carcinoma with unknown primitive at the moment of the diagnosis (n = 1). The median age was 58 years (extremes: 34-71 years).... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:105-10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.07
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1724  | Downloaded:143
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    Treatment of liver metastases in patients selected for cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Antonio Sommariva
    Cytoreductive surgery (CS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have gained increasing consensus in treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. The presence of liver metastases is generally considered a contraindication for CS + HIPEC, as hepatic involvement no longer represents a loco-regional aspect of disease. Despite this, liver resection (LR) has been tested in selected cases in combination with CS + HIPEC for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with liver metastasis. Relevant studies on this topic were identified through a search in the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:362-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.37
    Published on: 21 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1650  | Downloaded:58
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Combination of insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF binding protein-3, chromogranin A and prostate specific antigen can improve the detection of prostate cancer

    Saleh Ahmed Kamaleldin Saleh , Heba Mohamed Adly , Anmar Mohammed Nassir
    Aim: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent male cancer worldwide and designated the sixth most frequent male cancer in Arab countries. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has become the best and most valuable biomarker for screening of PCa, elevated levels of PSA can reflect the presence of malignant cells but can overlap with benign prostatic diseases. There is a necessity to develop and improve current tools for early detection and diagnosis of PCa. This study was done to evaluate the validation of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:82-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.20
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:1641  | Downloaded:93
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Systemic humoral responses of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer during BCG treatment: less is more

    Fernando M. Calais da Silva , Paula A. Videira , Dário Ligeiro , Maria Guadalupe Cabral , Richard Sylvester , Fernando E. Calais da Silva , Hélder Trindade
    Aim: Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the mainstay adjuvant treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, one third of the patients on BCG regimen relapse within the first year of treatment. This study aimed at identifying biomarkers to predict response to BCG treatment. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed in blood cells of 58 patients treated with BCG through six consecutive weekly instillations and then at month 3, 6, 9, and 12. Cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6; chemokines CCL2, CCL3,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:116-26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.25
    Published on: 14 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1615  | Downloaded:95
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  • Review|Open Access

    Gastric cancer: prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastases

    Paul H. Sugarbaker
    Gastric cancer is an aggressive malignancy that may metastasize through the bloodstream to the liver, through lymphatics to regional lymph nodes, or by penetration of the peritoneal lining of the stomach to result in seeding of the abdominal and pelvis surfaces. Peritoneal metastases are the most common mode of cancer dissemination. Technologies to prevent or treat peritoneal metastases from advanced gastric cancer are presented in this manuscript. The world’s literature, both recent and over the past three decades, was reviewed in order to identify publications that present information... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.67
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1602  | Downloaded:108
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of health care insurance on overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Srinivas S. Devarakonda , Runhua Shi , Ellen Friday , Reinhold Munker , Jonathan Glass , Francesco Turturro
    Aim: Health care insurance improves access to care and thus outcome in patients with solid tumors. Little information on the impact of health care insurance on hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma exists. The authors aimed to analyze the effect of health care insurance on the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, LA. Methods: Two hundred fifty seven patients were reviewed, of which 208 had MM and 49 had MGUS. Results: One hundred and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:100-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.19
    Published on: 9 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1594  | Downloaded:84
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Uterine large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with unusual colonic metastasis

    Antonio Ieni , Giuseppe Angelico , Rosalba De Sarro , Francesco Fleres , Antonio Macrì , Giovanni Tuccari
    A 78-year-old female patient arrived at our practice complaining of progressive abdominal increase and presenting a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. At physical examination, the abdomen appeared distended, moderately painful with the presence of a mass of hard consistency. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense pelvic mass that indicated a compression and lateral deviation of the uterus and bladder. Microscopically, the mass showed a uniform solid pattern, composed of medium and large-sized cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei demonstrating high... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:144-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.15
    Published on: 16 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1586  | Downloaded:77
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current challenges and opportunities in treating hypoxic prostate tumors

    Declan J. McKenna , Rachel Errington , Klaus Pors
    Hypoxia is a well-established characteristic of prostate tumors and is now recognised as a major contributory factor to both tumor progression and increased resistance to therapy. One strategy to target hypoxic tumor cells is the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs), which are activated in low oxygen environments. Several HAPs have been developed but despite encouraging results from preclinical studies many of these have performed disappointingly in clinical trials. In the developing era of precision medicine, it is clear that more strategic deployment of these agents is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:11. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.54
    Published on: 1 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1571  | Downloaded:155
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: expression, roles in metastatic prostate cancer progression and opportunities for drug targeting

    Robert A. Falconer , Paul M. Loadman
    The membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), an important subgroup of the wider MMP family, demonstrate widespread expression in multiple tumor types, and play key roles in cancer growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. Despite a large body of published research, relatively little information exists regarding evidence for MT-MMP expression and function in metastatic prostate cancer. This review provides an appraisal of the literature describing gene and protein expression in prostate cancer cells and clinical tissue, summarises the evidence for roles in prostate cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:315-27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.40
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1556  | Downloaded:95
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Immunological aspect of the liver and metastatic uveal melanoma

    Mizue Terai , Michael J. Mastrangleo , Takami Sato
    Uveal (eye) melanoma is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults. Despite optimal treatments for primary uveal melanoma, up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis, often in the liver. Once hepatic metastasis develops, the survival of patients is generally short and currently available treatments fail to show meaningful improvement of survival. Recent development of immune checkpoint blockades revolutionized immunotherapy for metastatic cutaneous (skin) melanoma. Unfortunately, metastatic uveal melanoma is unresponsive to this approach, thus there is an unmet... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:231-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.39
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1475  | Downloaded:105
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunity and therapy using hyperthermia with immunotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery

    Yohsuke Yagawa , Keishi Tanigawa , Yasunobu Kobayashi , Masakazu Yamamoto
    Hyperthermia is a type of medical modality for cancer treatment using the biological effect of artificially induced heat. Even though the intrinsic effects of elevated body temperature in cancer tissues are poorly understood, increasing the temperature of the body has been recognized as a popular therapeutic method for tumorous lesions as well as infectious diseases since ancient times. Recently accumulated evidence has shown that hyperthermia amplifies immune responses in the body against cancer while decreasing the immune suppression and immune escape of cancer. It also shows that... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:218-30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.35
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1441  | Downloaded:170
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Large chest wall fibromatosis with challenging treatment plan

    Rashi Agrawal , Prekshi Choudhary , Arun Kumar Goel , Vaishali Zamre , Sandeep Agarwal , Dinesh Singh
    The primary mode of treatment for desmoid tumors is surgical excision. However, high recurrence rates (39-79%) have been reported when surgery is used alone. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical resection of primary disease is controversial and should be based on a balanced discussion of potential morbidity from radiotherapy and local recurrence. In this patient, the maximum dimension of tumor was 21 cm. This is a larger chest wall fibromatosis than has been reported thus far, to the best of our knowledge. In this case, post-operative margins were free, but in view of the large... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:139-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.02
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:1365  | Downloaded:119
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Malignant field expression signatures in biopsy samples at diagnosis predict the likelihood of lethal disease in patients with localized prostate cancer

    Gennadi V. Glinsky
    Aim: Overtreatment of early-stage low-risk prostate cancer patients represents a significant problem in disease management and has significant socio-economic implications. Changes in prostate cancer screening and treatment practices in the United States have been associated with the recent decline in overall incidence and concomitant significant increase of the annual incidence of metastatic prostate cancer has been documented. Therefore, development of genetic and molecular markers of clinically significant disease in patients diagnosed with low grade localized prostate cancer would have a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:177-89. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.43
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1286  | Downloaded:21
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The synergy of Helicobacter pylori and lipid metabolic disorders in induction of Th17-related cytokines in human gastric cancer

    Jie Liu , Han Wang , Gang Chen , Mo Yang , Zhi-Xian Wu , Russell Erick Ericksen , Alice Sze Tsai Wong , Weiping Han , Jin-Zhang Zeng
    Aim: To study the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and lipid metabolic disorder on the expression of Th17-related cytokines in gastric cancer (GC). Methods: GC specimens were randomly collected from 42 patients, of whom 15 had H. pylori infection and 27 were without. Tumor RNA was extracted for reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantification of gene expression. Results: The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin, which are known to regulate Th17 differentiation, were upregulated by 20 and 6 folds, respectively, in H. pylori-infected compared to... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:169-76. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.46
    Published on: 29 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1270  | Downloaded:96
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor liver metastasis in a patient with previously diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an unexpected diagnosis

    Mário Fontes-Sousa , Helena Magalhães , Bianca Machado , Olga Sousa , Manuela Machado
    Locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma has an usually poor prognosis despite multimodal approaches and sequential chemotherapy. The authors present a case of a long-term survivor with stage III pancreatic adenocarcinoma achieving partial response after a multimodal approach including local and systemic treatments. However, three years after diagnosis and amidst several episodes of cholangitis, hepatic metastasis were suspected. Despite pancreatic adenocarcinoma being the obvious culprit for metastization, a hepatic biopsy was considered at that time given a stable primary disease and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.70
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1267  | Downloaded:57
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of previous anti-angiogenesis treatment in nivolumab-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Takefumi Komiya , Chao H. Huang , Prakash Neupane , Stephen K. Williamson , Prabhakar Chalise
    Aim: To investigate how previous systemic therapy such as anti-angiogenesis can influence cancer immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 134 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. Correlation between status of prior anti-angiogenesis treatment and clinical characteristics were determined. Impact of prior anti-angiogenesis on therapeutic outcome of nivolumab was investigated for tumor efficacy such as progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixteen patients were treated with at least one... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:1. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.65
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1252  | Downloaded:66
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    HOX transcription factors and the prostate tumor microenvironment

    Richard Morgan , Hardev S. Pandha
    It is now well established that the tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in the survival, growth, invasion, and spread of cancer through the regulation of angiogenesis and localized immune responses. This review examines the role of the HOX genes, which encode a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors, in the interaction between prostate tumors and their microenvironment. Previous studies have established that HOX genes have an important function in prostate cancer cell survival in vitro and in vivo, but there is also evidence that HOX proteins regulate the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:278-87. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.31
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:1179  | Downloaded:69
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pharmacogenomics in colorectal cancer: current role in clinical practice and future perspectives

    Francesca Battaglin , Alberto Puccini , Madiha Naseem , Marta Schirripa , Martin D. Berger , Ryuma Tokunaga , Michelle McSkane , Taline Khoukaz , Shivani Soni , Wu Zhang , Heinz-Josef Lenz
    The treatment scenario of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been evolving in recent years with the introduction of novel targeted agents and new therapeutic strategies for the metastatic disease. An extensive effort has been directed to the identification of predictive biomarkers to aid patients selection and guide therapeutic choices. Pharmacogenomics represents an irreplaceable tool to individualize patients treatment based on germline and tumor acquired somatic genetic variations able to predict drugs response and risk of toxicities. The growing knowledge of CRC molecular characteristics and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:12. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.04
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1157  | Downloaded:118
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting better at treating prostate cancer: what clinicians should want from scientists

    Malcolm Mason
    If the treatment landscape for prostate cancer is to be transformed, clinicians and scientists must work together ever more closely. Prostate cancer defeats physicians when patients are not accurately stratified according to patients’ risk of dying of disease, when the effects of tumor heterogeneity are insufficiently understood, and when attempts at therapy by clinicians spur further disease evolution and the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. At the same time, clinicians’ over-treat men who in reality do not need it, and some of those men needlessly suffer long term side effects as a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:271-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.51
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1071  | Downloaded:67
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting closer to prostate cancer in patients - what scientists should want from clinicians

    Norman J. Maitland
    For scientists pursuing drug development for prostate cancer, it is critical that an appropriate ex vivo or in vitro model system is available for study. Cancer research has generally consisted of: (1) finding the means to arrest fast growing cancer cells; or (2) (as a compromise) to slow down the excessive rate of cell growth; or in the best case (3) to kill the cancer cells whilst sparing the surrounding normal tissues. As the knowledge of the biological nature of the cancer cell improves, it has become increasingly apparent that such a simplistic attitude to cancer therapy development or... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:262-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.23
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1056  | Downloaded:70
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Report of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis and literature review

    Abhidha Malik , Ritesh Kumar , Abhishek Shankar , Sunil Chumber , Sameer Bakhshi , Seema Kaushal , Bala Thirunavukkarasu
    Primary sarcomas of kidney are exceptionally rare tumors, accounting for only 1-2% of all malignant tumors of kidney. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common histological subtype among all renal sarcomas. The authors describe here a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis in a 50-year-old lady, presenting with flank pain. Based on triple phase cardio-electroencephalographic covariance tracing abdomen, presumptive diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma/renal sarcoma/neurogenic tumor was made and patient underwent radical nephrectomy. Microscopy reflected spindle cell tumor which showed... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:111-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.12
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1002  | Downloaded:73
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Gastric cancer treated with pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy: revising an option for peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Filipa Macedo , Kátia Ladeira , Adhemar Longatto-Filho , Sandra F. Martins
    Aim: Gastric cancer is the cancer with the highest rate of peritoneal metastization and this type of spread is associated with a higher death rate compared to distant organ metastasis. The systemic chemotherapy has a minimal effect in peritoneal metastasis so new types of treatment have emerged. The authors revised the main studies done in pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) and presented the main conclusions. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted focusing on PIPAC in gastric cancer. The MeSH database was searched with the terms: “Gastric cancer [MeSH] and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.72
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:977  | Downloaded:77
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cell-mediated immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Wei-Chen Lee
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Most of the time, these tumors are diagnosed at late stages. Because no effective treatments exist for patients with advanced stage HCC, there is an urgent need for novel, effective treatments. Cancer cells originate as a consequence of abnormal expression of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressor genes. Often, neoplastic transformation results in a hyper-mutated cellular genome, which in turn produces neo-antigens from mutated genes. These tumor-specific or tumor-associated antigens can be recognized by... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:244-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.48
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:865  | Downloaded:105
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a part of biotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao , Robert K. Oldham
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:3. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.63
    Published on: 22 Jan 2018  | Viewed:838  | Downloaded:118
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  • Review|Open Access

    Microenvironment in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer metastasis

    Hiroshi Sawayama , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Hideo Baba
    Tumor tissues contain cancer cells, other cellular and non-cellular components. Tumor microenvironments consist of cancer cells and various types of stromal cells, cancer associated fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells, mainly tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Increasing recent evidence has demonstrated that alteration of tumor microenvironments is deeply implicated in tumor progression and metastasis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Recent investigations have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.79
    Published on: 28 Feb 2018  | Viewed:827  | Downloaded:93
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  • Review|Open Access

    Significance of peritoneal lavage cytology based on genetic signatures in gastric cancer

    Tasuku Matsuoka , Masakazu Yashiro
    Peritoneal metastasis is the most common pattern of recurrence and the most frequent cause of death after surgery in patients with gastric cancer. Peritoneal free cancer cells disseminated from the primary lesion site have been considered the main cause of peritoneal metastasis. Peritoneal lavage cytological examination (PLC) has been shown to be an independent predictor of gastric cancer relapse after curative resection and poor overall survival. However, the conventional cytological examinations have high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. To improve the sensitivity,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.85
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:780  | Downloaded:60
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Health-related quality of life and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors, Northwest of Iran

    Nayyereh Aminisani , Mehdi Fatemi , Parvin Sarbakhsh , Alireza Nikanfar , Amirtaher Eftekharsadat , Esmat Jafari
    Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors in northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in northwest of Iran. Rectal cancer survivors were selected from teaching hospitals. HRQOL was estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30. Information about socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical features of disease was obtained by trained interviewers. Results: A total of 96 patients were included in this... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:209-16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.47
    Published on: 29 Sep 2017  | Viewed:768  | Downloaded:70
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic targets against gastric cancer stem cells interacting with tumor microenvironment

    Tomoyuki Uchihara , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Atsuko Yonemura , Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is known to be the main reason for resistance to anticancer agents as well as for the development of distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves harbor self-renewal and differentiation abilities, the tumor microenvironment that surrounds CSCs provides secreted factors and supports angiogenesis and is thus responsible for the maintenance of their CSC properties. The current review provides information regarding the impact of the tumor microenvironment on gastric CSCs, which... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.81
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:764  | Downloaded:85
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Adenosine A2B receptor: novel anti-cancer therapeutic implications

    Silvia Paola Corona , Navid Sobhani , Daniele Generali
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:206-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.50
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:764  | Downloaded:102
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Targeting adenosine receptor 2B in triple negative breast cancer

    Carola A. Neumann , Kevin Levine , Steffi Oesterreich
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:13. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.60
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:708  | Downloaded:58
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  • Review|Open Access

    The magnitude of benefit from adding taxanes to anthracyclines in the adjuvant settings of breast cancer: discussion of large trials and meta-analyses

    Osama H. Elzaafarany , Atlal Abusanad
    The taxanes family of chemotherapy, which includes paclitaxel and docetaxel, has been incorporated in the adjuvant breast cancer treatments since 1990s. Sequential and concurrent use of taxanes was investigated with anthracyclines in many adjuvant early breast cancer randomized clinical trials. Results from taxanes trials showed inconsistent benefits. However, several meta-analyses showed significant survival benefit of adding taxanes. In this review article, data were collected and summarized from eleven large randomized trials and three meta-analyses to show and discuss the magnitude of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.55
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:598  | Downloaded:44
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Introduction to the Special Issue on Cancer Immunotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:217. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.21
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:535  | Downloaded:91
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Nodal involvement and p16-staining in upper alveolar ridge and hard palate cancer

    Edgar Salas , Pedro Sanchez , Juan Postigo , Carlos A. Castaneda , Miluska Castillo , Valeria Villegas , Luis Cano , Sandro Casavilca , Luis A. Bernabe , Carolina Belmar , Maria R. Villa-Robles , Raul Mantilla , Henry Guerra
    Aim: Upper alveolar ridge and hard palate squamous cancer is an infrequent malignancy. We evaluated factors associated with neck involvement and with p16-staining. Methods: Head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) patients who went to Head and Neck Department between 1997 and 2011 were screened, and 73 resected upper alveolar ridge and 5 hard palate SCC were selected. Tumors with available tissue were stained with p16 immunohistochemistry. Results: Median age was 64.4 years, 55.1% were female, and 73.1% were in clinical stage IV. Neck dissections were performed in 24 and pathologically... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:15. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.66
    Published on: 28 Mar 2018  | Viewed:519  | Downloaded:30
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of long noncoding RNAs in cancer metastasis

    Christine Parsons , Alexis M. Tayoun , Benjamin D. Benado , Gabriel Ragusa , Rose F. Dorvil , Elizabeth A. Rourke , Kaitlyn O’ Connor , Irene G. Reed , Angela Alexander , Lian Willetts , Maryam Habibian , Brian D. Adams
    Signaling pathways are tightly controlled systems that regulate the appropriate timing of gene expression required for the differentiation of cells down a particular lineage essential for proper tissue development. Proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic pathways are just a few examples of the signaling pathways that require fine-tuning, so as to control the proper development of a particular tissue type or organ system. An estimated 70% of the genome is actively transcribed, only 2% of which codes for known protein-coding genes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in particular, are a large and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:19. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.11
    Published on: 28 Apr 2018  | Viewed:485  | Downloaded:54
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  • Meta-Analysis|Open Access

    The potential prognostic and predictive roles of programmed cell death protein 1 expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    Dong-Yun Zhang , Rong-Zhi Liu , Jian-Wei Ku , Yu-Hong Ma , Ying-Jie Yi
    Aim: Several previous studies have evaluated the potential role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in various solid tumors and performed its prognosis role in patients’ survival with inconsistent results. This study aims to further systematically evaluate the association of PD-1 by TILs with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes in solid tumor patients. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases for relevant studies. The potential prognostic and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.01
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:381  | Downloaded:60
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  • Review|Open Access

    Recent trend in gastric cancer treatment in the USA

    Kazuto Harada , Hideo Baba , Jaffer A. Ajani
    Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is estimated as the fifteenth most common cancer in the USA. Incidence rate has been gradually decreasing, but prognosis remains dismal. For patients with locally advanced GAC (stage > T1B and < T4B), multimodality therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are needed. Perioperative chemotherapy or postoperative chemoradiation/chemotherapy is recommended. For metastatic GAC patients, combination of two cytotoxics (platinum compound and fluoropyrimidine) has become a common place in the USA, and when HER2 is positive, trastuzumab is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:18. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.74
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:347  | Downloaded:41
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The combined analysis of solid and liquid biopsies provides additional clinical information to improve patient care

    Ana Finzel , Helen Sadik , Gregori Ghitti , Jean-François Laes
    Aim: To investigate if the genetic information provided by sequencing of both solid and liquid biopsies can shed light on tumor heterogeneity, and to understand the clinical usefulness of adding blood profiling to standard tissue analysis in cancer care. Methods: Data from 351 patients with stage IV solid tumors for whom molecular profiling of their solid and liquid biopsies was available were studied, with a focus on the discrepant molecular information found between tissue and blood samples. Results: In 86% of patients, solid and liquid biopsies provided different molecular information.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:21. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.10
    Published on: 8 May 2018  | Viewed:337  | Downloaded:27
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  • Review|Open Access

    Prostate cancer cells at a therapeutic gunpoint of the autophagy process

    Fabio Gabriele , Carolina Martinelli , Sergio Comincini
    In a normal prostate, the process of controling cell death is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and its inhibition may lead to the development of cancer. Androgen receptor signaling plays pivotal roles in the prostate development and homeostasis as well as in the progression of prostate cancer. The main treatment for prostate cancer is a combination of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using anti-androgens and docetaxil administration. However, ADT eventually fails due to a pathological unbalance of cell death processes, in particular apoptosis and autophagy. As a result prostate... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy and Cancer: current biology and drug development
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:17. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.06
    Published on: 19 Apr 2018  | Viewed:296  | Downloaded:25
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  • Review|Open Access

    Conversion surgery for stage IV gastric cancer

    Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastric cancer with distant metastases, such as para-aortic lymph node metastases, hepatic metastases, and peritoneal dissemination, is classified as stage IV. In this situation, cancer cells have formed micrometastases throughout the body; therefore, according to the algorithm of the Japanese guidelines, stage IV cancer is outside the indication for curative resection. Recent advances in some chemical agents have been remarkable, and some patients have survived for long periods even with stage IV gastric cancer. Thus, even in patients with stage IV gastric cancer, there is a possibility... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:22. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.75
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:105  | Downloaded:6
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  • Review|Open Access

    Treatment strategy for metastatic gastric cancer in Japan

    Kojiro Eto , Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Despite recent progress in diagnostic imaging, gastric cancer (GC) is occasionally found at an advanced stage with distant metastasis. As metastatic GC is difficult to cure, the treatment strategy should be considered individually based on the physical and socioeconomic status of patients as well as on the GC symptoms. The first choice of treatment for metastatic GC is chemotherapy, and several chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic or recurrent GC have been developed through randomized controlled trials. Ongoing clinical trials will provide novel therapeutic options for patients with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:23. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.73
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:78  | Downloaded:2
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  • Letter|Open Access

    Hypoxia in prostate cancer

    Peter Vaupel
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.30
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:76  | Downloaded:6
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  • Review|Open Access

    Management of metastatic esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    Tasuku Toihata , Yu Imamura , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    The prognosis of metastatic disease of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma remains poor, despite using a variety of regimens using cytotoxic agents. Recent understanding of molecular characteristic and tumor microenvironment of this cancer is currently instigating new therapeutic options. In this review, we summarized previous evidences of cytotoxic agents widely used worldwide, and updated recent developments of molecular targeted drugs, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:24. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.82
    Published on: 17 May 2018  | Viewed:54  | Downloaded:2
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Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment Print ISSN: 2394-4722; Online ISSN: 2454-2857
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