Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunotherapy: a brief review of the history, possibilities, and challenges ahead

    Stanley J. Oiseth, Mohamed S. Aziz
    The knowledge that the body possesses natural defenses to combat cancer existed long before the modern period, with multiple anecdotal reports of tumors miraculously disappearing, sometimes spontaneously or after a febrile or infectious episode. Spontaneous tumor regression of untreated malignant tumors is currently a well-accepted albeit rare phenomenon, and it is recognized that immunosuppression is associated with a higher cancer risk. The treatment of bladder carcinoma by intravesical administration of live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin bacteria was shown to be very effective in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:250-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.41
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:34881  | Downloaded:3978
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  • Review|Open Access

    Targeting Toll-like receptors against cancer

    Bing Du, Qiu-Li Jiang, Joseph Cleveland, Bing-Rong Liu, Dekai Zhang
    The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) about 20 years ago was a remarkable achievement not only in the field of immunology but also in the field of medicine. The TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors which play an important role in immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLRs also recognize danger-associated molecular patterns, which are associated with some diseases such as cancer. Recent evidence shows that TLRs are expressed not only in immune cells but also in tumor cells. The TLRs appear to play a role in tumor progression and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:463-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.62
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016  | Viewed:31898  | Downloaded:756
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Insights into mechanisms of tumor dissemination from circulating tumor cell lines of small cell lung cancer

    Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
    Despite the fact that the majority of cancer patients succumb to metastatic disease, most aspects of tumor metastasis are not understood in detail at present. Cell biologic steps of dissemination are difficult to characterize in human tumors and research is in large part confined to cell line and experimental animal studies. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), intravasation of malignant cells, dissemination as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and eventually mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) at distal sites are steps believed to be involved in metastasis. Small cell lung cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:446-52. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.57
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016  | Viewed:16853  | Downloaded:286
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    A new twist to neurotransmitter receptors and cancer

    Hildegard M. Schuller
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:71-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.18
    Published on: 28 Apr 2017  | Viewed:11093  | Downloaded:288
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  • Review|Open Access

    Bacteria in cancer therapy: beyond immunostimulation

    Wheeler Torres, Víctor Lameda, Luis Carlos Olivar, Carla Navarro, Jorge Fuenmayor, Adrián Pérez, Andres Mindiola, Milagros Rojas, María Sofía Martínez, Manuel Velasco, Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermudez
    Currently, conventional therapies in cancer are improving; chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have increased survival significantly. New therapies have arisen with the same goal; immunotherapy has appeared as a promising option in the fight against cancer stimulating the immune system by inducing innate and adaptive responses. These responses include release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, making the immune system capable to eliminate or protect against multiple tumors. Nowadays, many of these therapies are being used in clinical settings, such as checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal anti... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.49
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:9281  | Downloaded:559
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  • Review|Open Access

    DNA damage-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and its roles in cancer progression

    Wei Wang, Arul M. Mani, Zhao-Hui Wu
    DNA damage is a vital challenge to cell homeostasis. Cellular responses to DNA damage (DDR) play essential roles in maintaining genomic stability and survival, whose failure could lead to detrimental consequences such as cancer development and aging. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that plays critical roles in cellular stress response. Along with p53, NF-kB modulates transactivation of a large number of genes which participate in various cellular processes involved in DDR. Here the authors summarize the recent progress in understanding DNA damage response... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:45-59. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.03
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:8967  | Downloaded:320
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Papaya black seeds have beneficial anticancer effects on PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    Khalid S. Alotaibi, Haiwen Li, Reza Rafi, Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: The study investigated the effect of papaya seeds on prostate cancer (PC) using PC-3 cell line because papaya seeds have effects on the male reproductive system notably decreasing sperm concentration, motility, and viability, leading to azoospermia after short-to-long-term treatment. Methods: The black seeds from yellow (ripe) papaya and white seeds from green (unripe) papaya were harvested and then extracted in water, 80% methanol, and hexane. The cytotoxic effects of seeds extracts were determined using a WST-1 proliferation assay. The amount of total polyphenols was determined using... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:161-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.33
    Published on: 28 Aug 2017  | Viewed:8845  | Downloaded:301
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    A versatile method for enumeration and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with breast cancer

    Ujjwala M. Warawdekar, Vani Parmar, Aruna Prabhu, Abhay Kulkarni, Meenal Chaudhari, Rajendra A. Badwe
    Aim: To establish a standardized protocol for the isolation and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: The protocol used tumor cells spiked in a lymphoid cell line with detection by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Cells of the human mammary cancer subtypes were spiked into Jurkat cells, which served as the lymphocyte designate in numbers from 10 to 500 per 105 Jurkat cells. This mixed population was probed for CD45, EpCAM, and pancytokeratin acquired... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:23-33. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.66
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017  | Viewed:7913  | Downloaded:190
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Real-time quantitative PCR array to study drug-induced changes of gene expression in tumor cell lines

    Stefano Amatori, Giuseppe Persico, Mirco Fanelli
    Aim: Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is still the “gold standard” for quantitative analysis of mRNA and the study of differentially expressed genes. Methods: The authors describe a RT-qPCR array that exploits SYBR Green dye-based detection to perform reliable gene expression analysis on 41 genes involved in several pathways linked to DNA damage response, cell cycle progression, cellular senescence, and programmed cell death. To validate the RT-qPCR array, the authors investigated changes of the gene expression profile of HeLa cells treated with two... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:90-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.22
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:7719  | Downloaded:413
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Androgen-AR axis in primary and metastatic prostate cancer: chasing steroidogenic enzymes for therapeutic intervention

    Agnese C. Pippione, Donatella Boschi, Klaus Pors, Simonetta Oliaro-Bosso, Marco L. Lolli
    Androgens play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Although androgen deprivation therapy remains the front-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer, patients eventually relapse with the lethal form of the disease. The prostate tumor microenvironment is characterised by elevated tissue androgens that are capable of activating the androgen receptor (AR). Inhibiting the steroidogenic enzymes that play vital roles in the biosynthesis of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) seems to be an attractive strategy for PCa therapies. Emerging data... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:328-61. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.44
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:7253  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance - implications for future treatments of prostate cancer

    Fiona M. Frame, Amanda R. Noble, Sandra Klein, Hannah F. Walker, Rakesh Suman, Richard Kasprowicz, Vin M. Mann, Matt S. Simms, Norman J. Maitland
    Aim: To develop new therapies for prostate cancer, disease heterogeneity must be addressed. This includes patient variation, multi-focal disease, cellular heterogeneity, genomic changes and epigenetic modification. This requires more representative models to be used in more innovative ways. Methods: This study used a panel of cell lines and primary prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from patient tissue. Several assays were used; alamar blue, colony forming assays, γH2AX and Ki67 immunofluorescence and comet assays. Ptychographic quantitative phase imaging (QPI), a label-free imaging... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:302-14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.34
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:7145  | Downloaded:351
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Prostate cancer exosomes as modulators of the tumor microenvironment

    Alex P. Shephard, Vincent Yeung, Aled Clayton, Jason P. Webber
    Researchers are currently trying to understand why some men with prostate cancer go on to develop aggressive disease whilst others maintain slow growing tumors. Although endogenous genetic anomalies within the tumor cell are important, the prevailing view is that the tissue microenvironment as a whole is the determinant factor. Many studies have focussed on the role of soluble factors in modulating the nature of the tumor microenvironment. There is however a growing interest in the role of extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, as regulators of disease progression. A variety of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:288-301. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.32
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:6849  | Downloaded:365
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  • Review|Open Access

    A primer on recent developments in cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on neoantigen vaccines

    Taku A. Tokuyasu, Jian-Dong Huang
    Cancer immunotherapy has now been conclusively shown to be capable of producing durable responses for a substantial number of patients. Adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint blockade therapies in particular both demonstrate that antigen-specific immune responses can be dramatically effective, even in previously refractory late stage disease. Such developments, together with advances in technology, have strongly encouraged revisiting the concept of neoantigen vaccines. Here we introduce basic ideas in the field to allow investigators from diverse backgrounds to understand these developments,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.52
    Published on: 18 Jan 2018  | Viewed:5783  | Downloaded:371
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  • Review|Open Access

    Role of adenosine in tumor progression: focus on A2B receptor as potential therapeutic target

    Claudia Sorrentino, Silvana Morello
    Adenosine receptors are a family of G-coupled receptors which mediate the anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressive effects of adenosine in a damaged tissue. A large number of evidence indicate that the accumulation of adenosine under hypoxic conditions favors tumor progression, helping cancer cells to evade immune responses. Tumor cells and/or lymphoid and myeloid cells can express the adenosine-generating enzyme CD73 and/or A2A receptor, which in turn strongly suppresses an effective T-cell-mediated response, while promotes the activity of suppressive cells such as Treg and myeloid-derived... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:127-38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.29
    Published on: 17 Jul 2017  | Viewed:4923  | Downloaded:513
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  • Review|Open Access

    Gastric cancer: prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastases

    Paul H. Sugarbaker
    Gastric cancer is an aggressive malignancy that may metastasize through the bloodstream to the liver, through lymphatics to regional lymph nodes, or by penetration of the peritoneal lining of the stomach to result in seeding of the abdominal and pelvis surfaces. Peritoneal metastases are the most common mode of cancer dissemination. Technologies to prevent or treat peritoneal metastases from advanced gastric cancer are presented in this manuscript. The world’s literature, both recent and over the past three decades, was reviewed in order to identify publications that present information... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.67
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:4484  | Downloaded:188
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  • Review|Open Access

    Using circulating tumor cells to advance precision medicine in prostate cancer

    Giuseppe Galletti, Daniel Worroll, David M. Nanus, Paraskevi Giannakakou
    The field of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment has seen many emerging technologies in recent years, which have resulted in the identification and monitoring of clinically relevant, CTC-based biomarkers that can be analyzed routinely without invasive procedures. Several molecular platforms have been used to investigate the molecular profile of the disease, from high throughput gene expression analyses down to single cell biological dissection. The established presence of CTC heterogeneity nevertheless constitutes a challenge for cell isolation as the several subpopulations can... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:190-205. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.45
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:4329  | Downloaded:245
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    TGF-β stimulation of EMT programs elicits non-genomic ER-α activity and anti-estrogen resistance in breast cancer cells

    Maozhen Tian, William P. Schiemann
    Aim: Estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) activation drives the progression of luminal breast cancers. Signaling by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) typically opposes the actions of ER-α; it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs that promote breast cancer dissemination, stemness and chemoresistance. The impact of EMT programs on nongenomic ER-α signaling remains unknown and was studied herein. Methods: MCF-7 and BT474 cells were stimulated with TGF-β to induce EMT programs, at which point ER-α expression, localization, and nongenomic interactions with receptor tyrosine... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:150-60. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.38
    Published on: 21 Aug 2017  | Viewed:4274  | Downloaded:181
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cancer immunity and therapy using hyperthermia with immunotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery

    Yohsuke Yagawa, Keishi Tanigawa, Yasunobu Kobayashi, Masakazu Yamamoto
    Hyperthermia is a type of medical modality for cancer treatment using the biological effect of artificially induced heat. Even though the intrinsic effects of elevated body temperature in cancer tissues are poorly understood, increasing the temperature of the body has been recognized as a popular therapeutic method for tumorous lesions as well as infectious diseases since ancient times. Recently accumulated evidence has shown that hyperthermia amplifies immune responses in the body against cancer while decreasing the immune suppression and immune escape of cancer. It also shows that... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:218-30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.35
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:3406  | Downloaded:316
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Profiling of circulating tumor cells in liquid biopsies from metastatic cancer patients

    Pravin D. Potdar, Keerti Sen
    Aim: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are crucial to tumor metastasis and valuable for prediction of clinical outcome in patients with solid tumors. Here, the authors aimed to establish a method for enumeration and characterization of CTCs from liquid biopsies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated from blood samples from patients with metastatic cancer using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and cultured to isolate and enumerate CTCs. Cultured CTCs were morphologically characterized by light and phase contrast microscopy. The tumorigenicity of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:6-15. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.53
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3241  | Downloaded:248
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Lung cancer biopsy dislodges tumor cells into circulating blood

    Noriyoshi Sawabata, Tomotaka Kitamura, Yuko Nitta, Tomoyo Taketa, Takeshi Ohno, Tatsuya Fukumori, Takeru Hyakutake, Takahito Nakamura
    Aim: A “seed” of lung cancer metastasis is circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which may be dislodged from a tumor during biopsy. This possibility was assessed among patients who underwent lung tumor biopsy using flexible fiber-topic bronchoscopy (FFB). Methods: The study involved six patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent FFB biopsy to diagnose a lesion pathologically (5 males and 1 female, median age 63 years, six adenocarcinomas, of four clinical-stage IA, one stage IB, and one stage IIIA), CTCs were extracted from the peripheral vein blood at pre-FFB and at post-FFB using a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:16-20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.67
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:3172  | Downloaded:259
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases: expression, roles in metastatic prostate cancer progression and opportunities for drug targeting

    Robert A. Falconer, Paul M. Loadman
    The membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), an important subgroup of the wider MMP family, demonstrate widespread expression in multiple tumor types, and play key roles in cancer growth, migration, invasion and metastasis. Despite a large body of published research, relatively little information exists regarding evidence for MT-MMP expression and function in metastatic prostate cancer. This review provides an appraisal of the literature describing gene and protein expression in prostate cancer cells and clinical tissue, summarises the evidence for roles in prostate cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:315-27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.40
    Published on: 12 Dec 2017  | Viewed:3105  | Downloaded:148
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Immunological aspect of the liver and metastatic uveal melanoma

    Mizue Terai, Michael J. Mastrangleo, Takami Sato
    Uveal (eye) melanoma is the most common primary eye malignancy in adults. Despite optimal treatments for primary uveal melanoma, up to 50% of patients subsequently develop systemic metastasis, often in the liver. Once hepatic metastasis develops, the survival of patients is generally short and currently available treatments fail to show meaningful improvement of survival. Recent development of immune checkpoint blockades revolutionized immunotherapy for metastatic cutaneous (skin) melanoma. Unfortunately, metastatic uveal melanoma is unresponsive to this approach, thus there is an unmet... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:231-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.39
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:2995  | Downloaded:192
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  • Review|Open Access

    Update on targeted therapy and immune therapy for gastric cancer, 2018

    Yuki Kiyozumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Kohei Yamashita, Yuki Koga, Naoya Yoshida, Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most common cancers and serious health problems worldwide. For unresectable or metastatic advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy treatment is first selected. Although chemotherapy has improved survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. In recent years, some therapies targeting biological molecules have been reported to prolong the survival of patients with AGC. Since trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets HER2, was established as standard therapy for unresectable GC in a HER2-positive... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:31. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.77
    Published on: 28 Jun 2018  | Viewed:2947  | Downloaded:313
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  • Short Communication|Open Access

    Management of choroidal metastasis using external beam radiotherapy: a retrospective study and review of the literature

    Zakaria Ahmed Youbi, Enachescu Ciprian, Caraivan Ionela, Bennani Zineb, Khounigere Majdouline, Kotzki Léa, Pialat Pierre-Marie, Sesques Pierre, Yossi Séna
    Aim: Choroidal metastases are rare in the evolution of solid cancers and constitute exceptional metastatic sites involving functional visual prognosis. The authors conducted a retrospective study to determine the interest of external radiotherapy for the treatment of choroidal metastases. Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 28 patients with choroidal metastases who had breast (n = 15), lung (n = 9), ovarian (n = 1), kidney (n = 1), prostate (n = 1) cancer or carcinoma with unknown primitive at the moment of the diagnosis (n = 1). The median age was 58 years (extremes: 34-71 years).... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:105-10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.07
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2898  | Downloaded:221
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current challenges and opportunities in treating hypoxic prostate tumors

    Declan J. McKenna, Rachel Errington, Klaus Pors
    Hypoxia is a well-established characteristic of prostate tumors and is now recognised as a major contributory factor to both tumor progression and increased resistance to therapy. One strategy to target hypoxic tumor cells is the development of hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs), which are activated in low oxygen environments. Several HAPs have been developed but despite encouraging results from preclinical studies many of these have performed disappointingly in clinical trials. In the developing era of precision medicine, it is clear that more strategic deployment of these agents is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:11. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.54
    Published on: 1 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2697  | Downloaded:225
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  • Review|Open Access

    Cytogenetic and molecular basis of BCR-ABL myelodysplastic syndrome: diagnosis and prognostic approach

    Mostafa Paridar, Omid Kiani Ghalesardi, Mohammad Seghatoleslami, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Abbas Khosravi, Najmaldin Saki
    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a heterogeneous group of blood disorders generally afflicting older people. Several genetic factors have been reported from these patients that have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. BCR-ABL1 is a genetic factor that has occasionally been reported in some studies. This review attempts to characterize MDS patients reported to harbor this fusion and to assess the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic potential of BCR-ABL1 fusionin MDS patients. This review showed that BCR-ABL fusion has been reported in 22... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:38-44. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.61
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2695  | Downloaded:228
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  • Minireview|Open Access

    Treatment of liver metastases in patients selected for cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Antonio Sommariva
    Cytoreductive surgery (CS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have gained increasing consensus in treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. The presence of liver metastases is generally considered a contraindication for CS + HIPEC, as hepatic involvement no longer represents a loco-regional aspect of disease. Despite this, liver resection (LR) has been tested in selected cases in combination with CS + HIPEC for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with liver metastasis. Relevant studies on this topic were identified through a search in the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:362-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.37
    Published on: 21 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2639  | Downloaded:96
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells: hope to diagnose and treat metastatic cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:1-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.72
    Published on: 12 Jan 2017  | Viewed:2635  | Downloaded:184
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Uterine large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with unusual colonic metastasis

    Antonio Ieni, Giuseppe Angelico, Rosalba De Sarro, Francesco Fleres, Antonio Macrì, Giovanni Tuccari
    A 78-year-old female patient arrived at our practice complaining of progressive abdominal increase and presenting a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction. At physical examination, the abdomen appeared distended, moderately painful with the presence of a mass of hard consistency. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense pelvic mass that indicated a compression and lateral deviation of the uterus and bladder. Microscopically, the mass showed a uniform solid pattern, composed of medium and large-sized cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei demonstrating high... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:144-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.15
    Published on: 16 Aug 2017  | Viewed:2551  | Downloaded:113
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer: a new kid on the block

    Andrea Spallanzani, Fabio Gelsomino, Francesco Caputo, Chiara Santini, Kalliopi Andrikou, Giulia Orsi, Margherita Rimini, Stefania Pipitone, Laura Riggi, Camilla Bardasi, Massimiliano Salati, Stefano Cascinu
    In the last few years, the success of anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 drugs in solid cancers treatment and the advances in molecular biology have provided new potential treatment strategies for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, only patients with mismatch repair deficiency seem to benefit from immunotherapy and they represent a small subset of the metastatic population. New ongoing studies focus on converting an immune ignorant tumour into an inflamed one by combination therapies and on introducing an immunotherapeutic approach in earlier stages of disease (neoadjuvant and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:28. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.31
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:2543  | Downloaded:287
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pharmacogenomics in colorectal cancer: current role in clinical practice and future perspectives

    Francesca Battaglin, Alberto Puccini, Madiha Naseem, Marta Schirripa, Martin D. Berger, Ryuma Tokunaga, Michelle McSkane, Taline Khoukaz, Shivani Soni, Wu Zhang, Heinz-Josef Lenz
    The treatment scenario of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been evolving in recent years with the introduction of novel targeted agents and new therapeutic strategies for the metastatic disease. An extensive effort has been directed to the identification of predictive biomarkers to aid patients selection and guide therapeutic choices. Pharmacogenomics represents an irreplaceable tool to individualize patients treatment based on germline and tumor acquired somatic genetic variations able to predict drugs response and risk of toxicities. The growing knowledge of CRC molecular characteristics and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:12. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.04
    Published on: 7 Mar 2018  | Viewed:2416  | Downloaded:189
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor liver metastasis in a patient with previously diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an unexpected diagnosis

    Mário Fontes-Sousa, Helena Magalhães, Bianca Machado, Olga Sousa, Manuela Machado
    Locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma has an usually poor prognosis despite multimodal approaches and sequential chemotherapy. The authors present a case of a long-term survivor with stage III pancreatic adenocarcinoma achieving partial response after a multimodal approach including local and systemic treatments. However, three years after diagnosis and amidst several episodes of cholangitis, hepatic metastasis were suspected. Despite pancreatic adenocarcinoma being the obvious culprit for metastization, a hepatic biopsy was considered at that time given a stable primary disease and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.70
    Published on: 24 Jan 2018  | Viewed:2240  | Downloaded:75
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Alkaline phosphatase flare with hyperostosis of bone metastases in lung adenocarcinoma treated with gefitinib

    Hiroto Kaneko, Kazuho Shimura, Yosuke Matsumoto, Mihoko Yoshida, Masafumi Taniwaki, Junya Kuroda
    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) flare has been reported to occur during cancer treatment as a favorable event, particularly in the presence of bone metastasis. There have been only a few reports in lung cancer and associated radiographic findings have seldom been described. The authors observed ALP flare in a female patient with lung adenocarcinoma soon after the initiation of gefitinib. Moreover, on computed tomography, metastatic lesions of the rib and thoracic spine showed marked hyperostosis, with sizes larger than the original bone structure, suggesting efficacy of gefitinib. The... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:34-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.70
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017  | Viewed:2240  | Downloaded:127
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  • Review|Open Access

    Unmasking tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution by single-cell analysis

    Xiaoshan Shi, Papia Chakraborty, Amitabha Chaudhuri
    The intratumoral heterogeneity orchestrated by the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms enable cancers to persist and spread notwithstanding the use of aggressive interventional therapies. The heterogeneity is revealed at multiple levels - at the level of individual tumor cells, in the cellular composition of tumor infiltrates and in the chemical microenvironment in which the cells reside. Deconvoluting the complex nature of the cell types present in the tumor, along with the homo and heterotypic interactions between different cell types can produce novel insights of biological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:47. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.32
    Published on: 31 Aug 2018  | Viewed:2193  | Downloaded:142
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    HOX transcription factors and the prostate tumor microenvironment

    Richard Morgan, Hardev S. Pandha
    It is now well established that the tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in the survival, growth, invasion, and spread of cancer through the regulation of angiogenesis and localized immune responses. This review examines the role of the HOX genes, which encode a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors, in the interaction between prostate tumors and their microenvironment. Previous studies have established that HOX genes have an important function in prostate cancer cell survival in vitro and in vivo, but there is also evidence that HOX proteins regulate the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:278-87. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.31
    Published on: 6 Dec 2017  | Viewed:2177  | Downloaded:114
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Systemic humoral responses of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer during BCG treatment: less is more

    Fernando M. Calais da Silva, Paula A. Videira, Dário Ligeiro, Maria Guadalupe Cabral, Richard Sylvester, Fernando E. Calais da Silva, Hélder Trindade
    Aim: Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the mainstay adjuvant treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, one third of the patients on BCG regimen relapse within the first year of treatment. This study aimed at identifying biomarkers to predict response to BCG treatment. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed in blood cells of 58 patients treated with BCG through six consecutive weekly instillations and then at month 3, 6, 9, and 12. Cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6; chemokines CCL2, CCL3,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:116-26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.25
    Published on: 14 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2162  | Downloaded:128
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Malignant field expression signatures in biopsy samples at diagnosis predict the likelihood of lethal disease in patients with localized prostate cancer

    Gennadi V. Glinsky
    Aim: Overtreatment of early-stage low-risk prostate cancer patients represents a significant problem in disease management and has significant socio-economic implications. Changes in prostate cancer screening and treatment practices in the United States have been associated with the recent decline in overall incidence and concomitant significant increase of the annual incidence of metastatic prostate cancer has been documented. Therefore, development of genetic and molecular markers of clinically significant disease in patients diagnosed with low grade localized prostate cancer would have a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:177-89. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.43
    Published on: 21 Sep 2017  | Viewed:2123  | Downloaded:32
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of health care insurance on overall survival of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Srinivas S. Devarakonda, Runhua Shi, Ellen Friday, Reinhold Munker, Jonathan Glass, Francesco Turturro
    Aim: Health care insurance improves access to care and thus outcome in patients with solid tumors. Little information on the impact of health care insurance on hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma exists. The authors aimed to analyze the effect of health care insurance on the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, LA. Methods: Two hundred fifty seven patients were reviewed, of which 208 had MM and 49 had MGUS. Results: One hundred and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:100-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.19
    Published on: 9 Jun 2017  | Viewed:2114  | Downloaded:120
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Combination of insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF binding protein-3, chromogranin A and prostate specific antigen can improve the detection of prostate cancer

    Saleh Ahmed Kamaleldin Saleh, Heba Mohamed Adly, Anmar Mohammed Nassir
    Aim: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent male cancer worldwide and designated the sixth most frequent male cancer in Arab countries. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA) has become the best and most valuable biomarker for screening of PCa, elevated levels of PSA can reflect the presence of malignant cells but can overlap with benign prostatic diseases. There is a necessity to develop and improve current tools for early detection and diagnosis of PCa. This study was done to evaluate the validation of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:82-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.20
    Published on: 24 May 2017  | Viewed:2113  | Downloaded:121
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Large chest wall fibromatosis with challenging treatment plan

    Rashi Agrawal, Prekshi Choudhary, Arun Kumar Goel, Vaishali Zamre, Sandeep Agarwal, Dinesh Singh
    The primary mode of treatment for desmoid tumors is surgical excision. However, high recurrence rates (39-79%) have been reported when surgery is used alone. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical resection of primary disease is controversial and should be based on a balanced discussion of potential morbidity from radiotherapy and local recurrence. In this patient, the maximum dimension of tumor was 21 cm. This is a larger chest wall fibromatosis than has been reported thus far, to the best of our knowledge. In this case, post-operative margins were free, but in view of the large... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:139-43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.02
    Published on: 21 Jul 2017  | Viewed:2070  | Downloaded:151
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  • Review|Open Access

    Microenvironment in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer metastasis

    Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Hideo Baba
    Tumor tissues contain cancer cells, other cellular and non-cellular components. Tumor microenvironments consist of cancer cells and various types of stromal cells, cancer associated fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells, mainly tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Increasing recent evidence has demonstrated that alteration of tumor microenvironments is deeply implicated in tumor progression and metastasis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Recent investigations have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of the... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:10. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.79
    Published on: 28 Feb 2018  | Viewed:2057  | Downloaded:166
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The synergy of Helicobacter pylori and lipid metabolic disorders in induction of Th17-related cytokines in human gastric cancer

    Jie Liu, Han Wang, Gang Chen, Mo Yang, Zhi-Xian Wu, Russell Erick Ericksen, Alice Sze Tsai Wong, Weiping Han, Jin-Zhang Zeng
    Aim: To study the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and lipid metabolic disorder on the expression of Th17-related cytokines in gastric cancer (GC). Methods: GC specimens were randomly collected from 42 patients, of whom 15 had H. pylori infection and 27 were without. Tumor RNA was extracted for reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction quantification of gene expression. Results: The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and leptin, which are known to regulate Th17 differentiation, were upregulated by 20 and 6 folds, respectively, in H. pylori-infected compared to... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:169-76. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.46
    Published on: 29 Aug 2017  | Viewed:1954  | Downloaded:130
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of long noncoding RNAs in cancer metastasis

    Christine Parsons, Alexis M. Tayoun, Benjamin D. Benado, Gabriel Ragusa, Rose F. Dorvil, Elizabeth A. Rourke, Kaitlyn O’ Connor, Irene G. Reed, Angela Alexander, Lian Willetts, Maryam Habibian, Brian D. Adams
    Signaling pathways are tightly controlled systems that regulate the appropriate timing of gene expression required for the differentiation of cells down a particular lineage essential for proper tissue development. Proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic pathways are just a few examples of the signaling pathways that require fine-tuning, so as to control the proper development of a particular tissue type or organ system. An estimated 70% of the genome is actively transcribed, only 2% of which codes for known protein-coding genes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in particular, are a large and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:19. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.11
    Published on: 28 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1941  | Downloaded:130
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Chest wall metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    Jayesh Shyamnandan Singh, Ashutosh Das Sharma
    Metastases from head and neck cancers is rare occurrence. The common form of failure/recurrence in these cancers are local site recurrence or nodal metastases. Distant metastases are very rare and are most commonly seen in the lung, brain, liver and bones, and the latent period between the development of the primary and the distant metastases is usually long. There are very few cases reported of chest wall metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. This article reports such a case of squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa metastasizing to the chest wall four months after... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:78-81. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.08
    Published on: 28 Apr 2017  | Viewed:1939  | Downloaded:121
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    ERCC1 expression in patients with colorectal cancer: a pilot study

    Kinjal K. Gajjar, Deep Kumari Yadav, Toral P. Kobawala, Trupti I. Trivedi, Hemangini H. Vora, Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has a key role in enhanced DNA damage repair caused by oxaliplatin-based therapy and may lead to resistance of these platinum drugs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Hence, the present preliminary study aimed to explore the role of ERCC1 C/T polymorphism at codon 118 as well as its immunoreactivity in patients with primary CRC. Methods: ERCC1 polymorphism was studied using PCR-RFLP and ERCC1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 50 CRC patients. Results: ERCC1 codon 118 C/T polymorphism analysis reported the... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:471-6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.52
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1895  | Downloaded:183
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Targeting adenosine receptor 2B in triple negative breast cancer

    Carola A. Neumann, Kevin Levine, Steffi Oesterreich
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:13. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.60
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1743  | Downloaded:100
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Cell-mediated immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Wei-Chen Lee
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Most of the time, these tumors are diagnosed at late stages. Because no effective treatments exist for patients with advanced stage HCC, there is an urgent need for novel, effective treatments. Cancer cells originate as a consequence of abnormal expression of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressor genes. Often, neoplastic transformation results in a hyper-mutated cellular genome, which in turn produces neo-antigens from mutated genes. These tumor-specific or tumor-associated antigens can be recognized by... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:244-9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.48
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:1716  | Downloaded:156
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Nibrin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters

    Jigna H. Dave, Hemangini H. Vora, Trupti I. Trivedi, Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: The present study sought to discover the role of Nibrin protein in 100 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its potential relationship with clinicopathological parameters. Methods: Nibrin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically using the modified H-score method. Results: The present study included 20% of patients with stage I disease, 22% of patients with stage II disease, 18% of patients with stage III disease, and 40% of patients with stage IV disease. Nibrin showed a significant positive correlation with moderately/poorly differentiated tumor tissues (P =... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:436-42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2015.82
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1709  | Downloaded:165
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  • Review|Open Access

    Prostate cancer cells at a therapeutic gunpoint of the autophagy process

    Fabio Gabriele, Carolina Martinelli, Sergio Comincini
    In a normal prostate, the process of controling cell death is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and its inhibition may lead to the development of cancer. Androgen receptor signaling plays pivotal roles in the prostate development and homeostasis as well as in the progression of prostate cancer. The main treatment for prostate cancer is a combination of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using anti-androgens and docetaxil administration. However, ADT eventually fails due to a pathological unbalance of cell death processes, in particular apoptosis and autophagy. As a result prostate... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy and Cancer: current biology and drug development
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:17. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.06
    Published on: 19 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1707  | Downloaded:95
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Impact of previous anti-angiogenesis treatment in nivolumab-treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Takefumi Komiya, Chao H. Huang, Prakash Neupane, Stephen K. Williamson, Prabhakar Chalise
    Aim: To investigate how previous systemic therapy such as anti-angiogenesis can influence cancer immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 134 patients with advanced NSCLC who were treated with nivolumab were retrospectively reviewed. Correlation between status of prior anti-angiogenesis treatment and clinical characteristics were determined. Impact of prior anti-angiogenesis on therapeutic outcome of nivolumab was investigated for tumor efficacy such as progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sixteen patients were treated with at least one... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:1. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.65
    Published on: 17 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1696  | Downloaded:91
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Gastric cancer treated with pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy: revising an option for peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Filipa Macedo, Kátia Ladeira, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, Sandra F. Martins
    Aim: Gastric cancer is the cancer with the highest rate of peritoneal metastization and this type of spread is associated with a higher death rate compared to distant organ metastasis. The systemic chemotherapy has a minimal effect in peritoneal metastasis so new types of treatment have emerged. The authors revised the main studies done in pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) and presented the main conclusions. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted focusing on PIPAC in gastric cancer. The MeSH database was searched with the terms: “Gastric cancer [MeSH] and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.72
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1670  | Downloaded:115
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, PUMA in lung tissues of lung cancer patients in the Xuanwei and non-Xuanwei areas of Yunnan Province

    Kai-Yun Yang, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Yue-Feng He, Kushal Rizal, Hui Tan, An-Ning Chen, Yun-Chao Huang, Guang-Qiang Zhao, Yu-Jie Lei
    Aim: To study the expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in lung tissue of patients with lung cancer from Xuanwei of Yunnan Province. Methods: Forty-five cases of lung cancer patients from Xuanwei and 42 lung cancer cases from non-Xuanwei were enrolled. Extraction of RNA was done using the Trizol kit. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was done to obtain the relative expression. Results: Expressions of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in male and female patients or in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, expression of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:65-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.65
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1641  | Downloaded:147
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The combined analysis of solid and liquid biopsies provides additional clinical information to improve patient care

    Ana Finzel, Helen Sadik, Gregori Ghitti, Jean-François Laes
    Aim: To investigate if the genetic information provided by sequencing of both solid and liquid biopsies can shed light on tumor heterogeneity, and to understand the clinical usefulness of adding blood profiling to standard tissue analysis in cancer care. Methods: Data from 351 patients with stage IV solid tumors for whom molecular profiling of their solid and liquid biopsies was available were studied, with a focus on the discrepant molecular information found between tissue and blood samples. Results: In 86% of patients, solid and liquid biopsies provided different molecular information.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:21. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.10
    Published on: 8 May 2018  | Viewed:1637  | Downloaded:135
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting closer to prostate cancer in patients - what scientists should want from clinicians

    Norman J. Maitland
    For scientists pursuing drug development for prostate cancer, it is critical that an appropriate ex vivo or in vitro model system is available for study. Cancer research has generally consisted of: (1) finding the means to arrest fast growing cancer cells; or (2) (as a compromise) to slow down the excessive rate of cell growth; or in the best case (3) to kill the cancer cells whilst sparing the surrounding normal tissues. As the knowledge of the biological nature of the cancer cell improves, it has become increasingly apparent that such a simplistic attitude to cancer therapy development or... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:262-70. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.23
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1630  | Downloaded:96
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Percutaneous, computed tomography guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients

    Periklis Zavridis, Maria Tsitskari, Argyro Mazioti, Dimitrios Filippiadis
    Aim: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients. Methods: Over the course of 16 months, 22 patients underwent radiofrequency neurolysis as palliative therapy for pain reduction in celiac and splachnic plexus (n = 9), thoracic (n = 1), lumbar (n = 2) and superior hypogastric plexus (n = 5), as well as stellate ganglion (n = 5). Pain levels before treatment, one week after treatment, and at the last follow-up (average follow-up 6 months) were compared by means... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:60-4. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.04
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017  | Viewed:1506  | Downloaded:102
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current trends in gastric cancer treatment in Europe

    Satoshi Kamiya, Ioannis Rouvelas, Mats Lindblad, Magnus Nilsson
    Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths, despite the gradual decrease of its incidence in the West. Minimally invasive procedures, such as endoscopic resection and laparoscopic gastrectomy, have been successfully introduced in European high-volume centres, in the treatment of early gastric cancer. Regarding advanced, localized gastric cancer a number of prospective trials have been completed in search of better therapeutic options, aiming to optimize the efficacy vs. adverse effect ratio. From the results of these prospective randomized trials, the therapeutic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:35. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.76
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:1491  | Downloaded:291
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  • Topic: How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?|Open Access

    Getting better at treating prostate cancer: what clinicians should want from scientists

    Malcolm Mason
    If the treatment landscape for prostate cancer is to be transformed, clinicians and scientists must work together ever more closely. Prostate cancer defeats physicians when patients are not accurately stratified according to patients’ risk of dying of disease, when the effects of tumor heterogeneity are insufficiently understood, and when attempts at therapy by clinicians spur further disease evolution and the emergence of new resistance mechanisms. At the same time, clinicians’ over-treat men who in reality do not need it, and some of those men needlessly suffer long term side effects as a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:271-7. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.51
    Published on: 17 Nov 2017  | Viewed:1481  | Downloaded:91
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Report of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis and literature review

    Abhidha Malik, Ritesh Kumar, Abhishek Shankar, Sunil Chumber, Sameer Bakhshi, Seema Kaushal, Bala Thirunavukkarasu
    Primary sarcomas of kidney are exceptionally rare tumors, accounting for only 1-2% of all malignant tumors of kidney. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common histological subtype among all renal sarcomas. The authors describe here a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of renal pelvis in a 50-year-old lady, presenting with flank pain. Based on triple phase cardio-electroencephalographic covariance tracing abdomen, presumptive diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma/renal sarcoma/neurogenic tumor was made and patient underwent radical nephrectomy. Microscopy reflected spindle cell tumor which showed... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:111-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.12
    Published on: 30 Jun 2017  | Viewed:1464  | Downloaded:112
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  • Letter to Editor|Open Access

    Use of a dedicated day care unit in a modern radiation oncology facility -- a short audit

    Tejinder Kataria, Susovan Banerjee, Nimesh Dahima, Deepak Gupta, Trinanjan Basu, Shikha Goyal
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:21-2. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.73
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017  | Viewed:1413  | Downloaded:139
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue 18 years after renal transplantation: a case report

    Jyoti Poddar, Ashutosh Das Sharma, Ubrangala Suryanarayana Kunikullaya
    Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing malignancies, even decades after transplant, due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. A 35-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end stage renal disease 18 years previously and was on immunosuppressive drugs since that time and was on regular follow up. In 2016, he developed a squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, which was operated and adjuvant radiation therapy was given. The patient is currently on follow up and asymptomatic. Though squamous cell carcinoma of tongue is a relatively common malignancy in... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:443-5. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.36
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016  | Viewed:1408  | Downloaded:140
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications|Open Access

    The significance and clinical utility of the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells: a review of the evidence

    Nigel P. Murray
    Primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) are those detected in blood before definitive treatment for prostate cancer. CPCs can be detected in men with benign prostate disease; however, some methods to distinguish between benign and malignant prostate cells have to be validated. This study presents a review of the subject, including theoretical considerations for the selection of markers to detect them, the different methods used, and the utility of their detection in identifying men with prostate cancer and as a prognostic factor. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2016;2:453-62. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2016.55
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016  | Viewed:1398  | Downloaded:154
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  • Review|Open Access

    Significance of peritoneal lavage cytology based on genetic signatures in gastric cancer

    Tasuku Matsuoka, Masakazu Yashiro
    Peritoneal metastasis is the most common pattern of recurrence and the most frequent cause of death after surgery in patients with gastric cancer. Peritoneal free cancer cells disseminated from the primary lesion site have been considered the main cause of peritoneal metastasis. Peritoneal lavage cytological examination (PLC) has been shown to be an independent predictor of gastric cancer relapse after curative resection and poor overall survival. However, the conventional cytological examinations have high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. To improve the sensitivity,... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:6. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.85
    Published on: 9 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1345  | Downloaded:87
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a part of biotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao, Robert K. Oldham
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:3. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.63
    Published on: 22 Jan 2018  | Viewed:1333  | Downloaded:170
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  • Review|Open Access

    Therapeutic targets against gastric cancer stem cells interacting with tumor microenvironment

    Tomoyuki Uchihara, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Atsuko Yonemura, Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is known to be the main reason for resistance to anticancer agents as well as for the development of distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves harbor self-renewal and differentiation abilities, the tumor microenvironment that surrounds CSCs provides secreted factors and supports angiogenesis and is thus responsible for the maintenance of their CSC properties. The current review provides information regarding the impact of the tumor microenvironment on gastric CSCs, which... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:9. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.81
    Published on: 26 Feb 2018  | Viewed:1313  | Downloaded:127
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  • Review|Open Access

    Recent trend in gastric cancer treatment in the USA

    Kazuto Harada, Hideo Baba, Jaffer A. Ajani
    Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is estimated as the fifteenth most common cancer in the USA. Incidence rate has been gradually decreasing, but prognosis remains dismal. For patients with locally advanced GAC (stage > T1B and < T4B), multimodality therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are needed. Perioperative chemotherapy or postoperative chemoradiation/chemotherapy is recommended. For metastatic GAC patients, combination of two cytotoxics (platinum compound and fluoropyrimidine) has become a common place in the USA, and when HER2 is positive, trastuzumab is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:18. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.74
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1305  | Downloaded:98
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Nodal involvement and p16-staining in upper alveolar ridge and hard palate cancer

    Edgar Salas, Pedro Sanchez, Juan Postigo, Carlos A. Castaneda, Miluska Castillo, Valeria Villegas, Luis Cano, Sandro Casavilca, Luis A. Bernabe, Carolina Belmar, Maria R. Villa-Robles, Raul Mantilla, Henry Guerra
    Aim: Upper alveolar ridge and hard palate squamous cancer is an infrequent malignancy. We evaluated factors associated with neck involvement and with p16-staining. Methods: Head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) patients who went to Head and Neck Department between 1997 and 2011 were screened, and 73 resected upper alveolar ridge and 5 hard palate SCC were selected. Tumors with available tissue were stained with p16 immunohistochemistry. Results: Median age was 64.4 years, 55.1% were female, and 73.1% were in clinical stage IV. Neck dissections were performed in 24 and pathologically... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:15. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.66
    Published on: 28 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1199  | Downloaded:63
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Health-related quality of life and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors, Northwest of Iran

    Nayyereh Aminisani, Mehdi Fatemi, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Alireza Nikanfar, Amirtaher Eftekharsadat, Esmat Jafari
    Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and its correlates among rectal cancer survivors in northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in northwest of Iran. Rectal cancer survivors were selected from teaching hospitals. HRQOL was estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire C30. Information about socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical features of disease was obtained by trained interviewers. Results: A total of 96 patients were included in this... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:209-16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.47
    Published on: 29 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1178  | Downloaded:121
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Adenosine A2B receptor: novel anti-cancer therapeutic implications

    Silvia Paola Corona, Navid Sobhani, Daniele Generali
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:206-8. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.50
    Published on: 27 Sep 2017  | Viewed:1151  | Downloaded:159
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  • Review|Open Access

    NSAID celecoxib: a potent mitochondrial pro-oxidant cytotoxic agent sensitizing metastatic cancers and cancer stem cells to chemotherapy

    Stephen John Ralph, Sam Nozuhur, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Rhys Pritchard
    Intermittent hypoxia within tumor microenvironments causes pro-oxidative stress impairing oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In primary tumors this provokes metabolic reprogramming of both tumor cells and cancer stem cells and emergence of highly metastatic cancer cells. Tumor reprogramming is initiated by activating nuclear respiratory factors and hypoxia-inducible factors in response to changes in oxygen and ROS levels. Hence, hypoxia-induced pro-oxidative stress drives invasion and metastasis. However, it is also... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:49. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:1145  | Downloaded:60
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  • Review|Open Access

    The magnitude of benefit from adding taxanes to anthracyclines in the adjuvant settings of breast cancer: discussion of large trials and meta-analyses

    Osama H. Elzaafarany, Atlal Abusanad
    The taxanes family of chemotherapy, which includes paclitaxel and docetaxel, has been incorporated in the adjuvant breast cancer treatments since 1990s. Sequential and concurrent use of taxanes was investigated with anthracyclines in many adjuvant early breast cancer randomized clinical trials. Results from taxanes trials showed inconsistent benefits. However, several meta-analyses showed significant survival benefit of adding taxanes. In this review article, data were collected and summarized from eleven large randomized trials and three meta-analyses to show and discuss the magnitude of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:14. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.55
    Published on: 15 Mar 2018  | Viewed:1113  | Downloaded:92
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  • Meta-Analysis|Open Access

    The potential prognostic and predictive roles of programmed cell death protein 1 expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    Dong-Yun Zhang, Rong-Zhi Liu, Jian-Wei Ku, Yu-Hong Ma, Ying-Jie Yi
    Aim: Several previous studies have evaluated the potential role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in various solid tumors and performed its prognosis role in patients’ survival with inconsistent results. This study aims to further systematically evaluate the association of PD-1 by TILs with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes in solid tumor patients. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases for relevant studies. The potential prognostic and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:16. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.01
    Published on: 12 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1097  | Downloaded:104
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  • Review|Open Access

    Expression and regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenases in prostate cancer

    Ali I. M. Ibrahim, Maria Sadiq, Fiona M. Frame, Norman J. Maitland, Klaus Pors
    The functional role of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) in prostate cancer remains an area of some controversy. Many studies have used high ALDH functional activity to isolate putative cancer stem cells with tumour-initiating and propagating properties, while evidence is also emerging about the involvement of specific isoforms in migration, invasiveness and metastasis. Identification of specific ALDH isoforms, which contribute to both drug resistance and aggressiveness of the disease remains a challenge within the complex heterogeneity of prostate cancer. The purpose of this perspective is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:44. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.07
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1063  | Downloaded:150
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Cancer, circulating tumor cells, and metastasis: could protein-derived peptide fragments impede brain metastases?

    Gerald J. Mizejewski
    The majority of cancer deaths can be attributed to cancer cell metastases that migrate to distant target organs. Brain metastases constitute one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients, occurring in about 40% of patients with metastatic disease. Thus, there exists an unmet need for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment directed against early stage cancer cell metastasis. Previous studies have reported the development of methods to detect and identify early circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream prior to their seeding into distant organs. Using a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.20
    Published on: 11 Jun 2018  | Viewed:981  | Downloaded:68
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  • Review|Open Access

    Treatment strategy for metastatic gastric cancer in Japan

    Kojiro Eto, Satoshi Ida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Despite recent progress in diagnostic imaging, gastric cancer (GC) is occasionally found at an advanced stage with distant metastasis. As metastatic GC is difficult to cure, the treatment strategy should be considered individually based on the physical and socioeconomic status of patients as well as on the GC symptoms. The first choice of treatment for metastatic GC is chemotherapy, and several chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic or recurrent GC have been developed through randomized controlled trials. Ongoing clinical trials will provide novel therapeutic options for patients with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:23. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.73
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:971  | Downloaded:85
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  • Review|Open Access

    Genomic heterogeneity meets cellular energetics: crosstalk between the mitochondria and the cell cycle

    Erica L. Herrera, Seham Z. Azzam, Madison C. Berger, Laura A. Diaz-Martinez
    Changes in cellular energetics and genomic instability are two characteristics of cancers that have been studied independently. Evidence of cross-talk between mitochondria function and nuclear function has started to emerge, suggesting that these pathways can influence one another. Here we review recent evidence that links the mitochondria and the cell cycle. This evidence indicates bidirectional cross-talk where mitochondria function can regulate the cell cycle and induce genomic instability, and conversely, the cell cycle machinery regulates mitochondria function. Implications for this... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.35
    Published on: 6 Aug 2018  | Viewed:958  | Downloaded:236
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    New insights into the role of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in carcinogenesis: identification of complex single gene variance within tumors

    Bruce Gottlieb, Farbod Babrzadeh, Kathleen Klein Oros, Carlos Alvarado, Chunlin Wang, Baback Gharizadeh, Mark Basik, Celia M.T. Greenwood, Lenore K. Beitel, Mark Trifiro
    Aim: Present cancer hypotheses are almost all based on the concept that accumulation of specific driver gene mutations cause carcinogenesis. The discovery of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH), has resulted in this hypothesis being modified by assuming that most of these ITGH mutations are in passenger genes. In addition, accumulating ITGH data on driver gene mutations have revealed considerable genotype/phenotype disconnects. This study proposes to investigate this disconnect by examining the nature and degree of ITGH in breast tumors. Methods: ITGH was examined in tumors using next... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:37. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.26
    Published on: 19 Jul 2018  | Viewed:938  | Downloaded:100
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  • Review|Open Access

    Centrosome aberrations and chromosome instability contribute to tumorigenesis and intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Shirley Jusino, Fabiola M. Fernández-Padín, Harold I. Saavedra
    Centrosomes serve as the major microtubule organizing centers in cells and thereby contribute to cell shape, polarity, and motility. Also, centrosomes ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis. Centrosome aberrations arise when the centrosome cycle is deregulated, or as a result of cytokinesis failure. A long-standing postulate is that centrosome aberrations are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, this notion has been a subject of controversy because until recently the relationship has been correlative. Recently, it was shown that numerical or structural... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.24
    Published on: 7 Aug 2018  | Viewed:910  | Downloaded:93
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  • Review|Open Access

    Conversion surgery for stage IV gastric cancer

    Satoshi Ida, Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastric cancer with distant metastases, such as para-aortic lymph node metastases, hepatic metastases, and peritoneal dissemination, is classified as stage IV. In this situation, cancer cells have formed micrometastases throughout the body; therefore, according to the algorithm of the Japanese guidelines, stage IV cancer is outside the indication for curative resection. Recent advances in some chemical agents have been remarkable, and some patients have survived for long periods even with stage IV gastric cancer. Thus, even in patients with stage IV gastric cancer, there is a possibility... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:22. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.75
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:890  | Downloaded:118
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  • Topic: Cancer Immunotherapy|Open Access

    Introduction to the Special Issue on Cancer Immunotherapy

    Shuen-Kuei Liao
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2017;3:217. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.21
    Published on: 31 Oct 2017  | Viewed:865  | Downloaded:115
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells in gastric cancer

    Kenichi Nakamura, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Junji Kurashige, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a lot of attention as a novel biomarker for cancer research in past decades. CTCs infiltrate the bloodstream derived from the primary tumor, and are significantly involved in cancer metastasis and recurrence. Although clinical applications have been challenging owing to the difficulties of CTC identification, recent development of technology for specific enrichment and detection of CTCs contributes to diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, CTC analyses will shed new light on the biological mechanisms of cancer progression and metastasis. A number... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:32. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.78
    Published on: 5 Jul 2018  | Viewed:783  | Downloaded:200
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreatic cancer: treatment approaches and trends

    Nabyla Paixão Pereira, José Raimundo Corrêa
    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most challenging diseases due to its often late diagnose which results in limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. To date, the only curative treatment is complete tumor removal surgery but only a few patients are eligible to do it. The median survival period after surgery followed by chemotherapy adjuvant treatment is about 2 years. Since its approval by the FDA, Gemcitabine has become the first-line chemotherapy agent for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. The FOLFIRINOX regimen is also used as a treatment scheme for pancreatic cancer; however,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.13
    Published on: 25 Jun 2018  | Viewed:782  | Downloaded:61
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Increased ARF6 activation correlates with HGF stimulation in non-invasive prostate cancer cells

    Claire Morgan, Lucy J. Swithenbank, Helen Whiteland, Shareen H. Doak
    Aim: The effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on a non-invasive prostate cancer cell line (CAHPV-10), expressing cMET were studied, to mimic the possible effects neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy may have in promoting tumour progression. Methods: Prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells derived from cancer metastatic sites were analysed using cell culture assays, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, with or without HGF stimulation. Results: HGF significantly enhanced cell proliferation and induced cell scattering... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:46. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.19
    Published on: 30 Aug 2018  | Viewed:745  | Downloaded:111
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  • Review|Open Access

    Management of metastatic esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    Tasuku Toihata, Yu Imamura, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
    The prognosis of metastatic disease of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma remains poor, despite using a variety of regimens using cytotoxic agents. Recent understanding of molecular characteristic and tumor microenvironment of this cancer is currently instigating new therapeutic options. In this review, we summarized previous evidences of cytotoxic agents widely used worldwide, and updated recent developments of molecular targeted drugs, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:24. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.82
    Published on: 17 May 2018  | Viewed:744  | Downloaded:47
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular mechanism of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer

    Qing-Jiang Hu, Shuhei Ito, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Koshi Mimori
    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) is the most common cause of metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). Because there are no standard treatments for PD, it is associated with a poor prognosis. Although clinicians have performed intraperitoneal chemotherapy for GC with PD, the outcome remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the development of novel treatments and diagnostic tools for PD is expected to improve the prognosis of GC patients with PD. Notably, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of PD in GC. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of PD (three... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:39. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.08
    Published on: 26 Jul 2018  | Viewed:720  | Downloaded:175
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  • Review|Open Access

    Robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Masanori Tokunaga, Masahiro Watanabe, Shizuki Sugita, Akiko Tonouchi, Akio Kaito, Takahiro Kinoshita
    Robotic gastrectomy (RG) is increasingly performed, particularly in East Asia. With articulated devices, surgeons are able to perform every procedure more comfortably and meticulously, which makes RG ideal from the surgeon’s standpoint. However, it is still unclear whether it is a suitable treatment strategy from the patient’s viewpoint, due to the lack of solid evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials. The feasibility of RG has been demonstrated in many retrospective comparative studies, which showed similar trends, including relatively less estimated blood loss and longer... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:40. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.80
    Published on: 30 Jul 2018  | Viewed:718  | Downloaded:128
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cryptic NUP214-ABL1 fusion with complex karyotype, episomes and intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Moneeb A.K Othman, Beate Grygalewicz, Agnieszka Kołkowska-Leśniak, Joana B. Melo, Isabel M. Carreira, Thomas Liehr
    T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and little is known about their molecular background. However, complex karyotypes were already related to this group of malignancy and associated with poor outcome. Here, we describe a 17-year-old female being diagnosed with T-LBL and a normal karyotype after standard G-banding with trypsin-Giemsa (GTG)-banding. However, further analyses including high-resolution molecular approaches, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, fluorescence in situ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:50. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.41
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:714  | Downloaded:27
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  • Systematic Review|Open Access

    Surgical treatment of stage IV gastric cancer: is it worthwhile?

    Ilaria Pergolini, Paolo Ciano, Gianluca Guercioni, Marco Catarci
    Aim: To analyze clinical features and survival outcomes of patients with surgically-treated stage IV gastric cancer, in order to evaluate the suitability of surgery in these patients. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase on October 9th, 2017. Survival outcomes data were collected. Results: The original search returned 2434 papers. Thirty-nine studies were included in the final review, of which 26 evaluated liver metastasis resection, four pulmonary metastasis resections and nine palliative gastrectomies. In total 933 patients underwent... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:33. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.84
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:712  | Downloaded:125
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Anti-oxidation properties of leaves, skin, pulp, and seeds extracts from green papaya and their anti-cancer activities in breast cancer cells

    Shrefa A. Hadadi, Haiwen Li, Reza Rafie, Paul Kaseloo, Sarah M. Witiak, Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: Breast cancer is typically detected either during a screening examination or after a woman notices a lump. Breast cancers have different phenotypes depending on the presence/absence of an estrogen receptor (ER) and/or an epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptor. The objective of the present investigation was to investigate growth inhibitory activity of methanol-, ethanol-, and water-extracts from papaya fruit and leaves on MDA-MB-231 (ER-/Her-2-), MCF-7 (ER+/Her-2-), SK-BR- 3 (ER-/Her-2+) and MDA-MB-361, AU565 (ER+/Her-2+) breast cancer cells. Methods: The anti-oxidation potential of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:25. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.22
    Published on: 30 May 2018  | Viewed:702  | Downloaded:28
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating microRNAs as a liquid biopsy: a next-generation clinical biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer

    Shuhei Komatsu, Jun Kiuchi, Taisuke Imamura, Daisuke Ichikawa, Eigo Otsuji
    Accumulating evidence has suggested the potential clinical utility of novel body fluid biomarkers, or “liquid biopsy”, using circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids from cancer patients. Noninvasive and reproducible, liquid biopsy could provide the basis for individualized therapeutic strategies by identifying genetic and epigenetic aberrations that are closely associated with cancer initiation and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They also play important roles in various physiological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:36. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.58
    Published on: 18 Jul 2018  | Viewed:655  | Downloaded:173
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Extracellular control of chromosomal instability and maintenance of intra-tumoral heterogeneity

    Yi-Hong Zhou, Kambiz Afrasiabi, Mark E. Linskey
    Aim: Current cancer treatments are challenged by the plasticity of cancer cells, largely influenced by chromosomal instability (CIN) leading to variations in karyotype known as tumor-specific aneuploidy, which in turn, leads to intra-tumor cellular heterogeneity (TH). Cells with certain chromosomal defects often survive treatment and the growth-associated states of TH persist in recurrent tumors. Modulation of the CIN rate seems to reside within the tumor itself. In an attempt to develop a therapy targeting cancer plasticity, we studied the possible extracellular control of CIN rate in... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:41. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.16
    Published on: 2 Aug 2018  | Viewed:634  | Downloaded:146
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells and the metastatic process: the complexity of malignancy

    Tania Di Raimo, Elena De Santis, Luigi Coppola, Mario Rosario D’Andrea, Francesco Angelini
    Despite improvements achieved in terms of early detection and therapeutic approach, metastatic breast cancer remains one of the principal worldwide causes of death. In recent years, due to the heterogeneous response of each patient to chemotherapy, clinical research highlights the need of a personalized approach. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represents a promising tool for this purpose. Unfortunately, even if their correlation with severity, outcome and metastatic nature of the tumor has been established, several issues, mainly concerning their
    characterization and isolation, need to be
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:54. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.50
    Published on: 25 Oct 2018  | Viewed:608  | Downloaded:79
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy for gastric cancer

    Rie Makuuchi, Tomoyuki Irino, Yutaka Tanizawa, Etsuro Bando, Taiichi Kawamura, Masanori Terashima
    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is performed to achieve an R0 resection for gastric cancer with pancreatic and/or duodenal invasion. Several retrospective case series have been published, but the sample cohorts in each study were heterogeneous and small. Moreover, the absence of prospective studies results in a lack of solid evidence that will help determine who can benefit from this procedure. Although the morbidity and mortality of PD have been reported by most studies to be acceptable and that the procedure is feasible, these remained to be much higher than those of standard gastrectomy.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.15
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:591  | Downloaded:40
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  • Review|Open Access

    Laparoscopic personalized function-preserving gastrectomy with sentinel node mapping for early-stage gastric cancer

    Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa
    Laparoscopic gastrectomy is considered as an indispensable option between endoscopic resection and standard gastrectomy with open laparotomy for patients with early-stage gastric cancer. However, the extent of gastrectomy and remnant gastric function may affect patients’ quality of life (QOL) after surgery. Therefore, function-preserving gastrectomy in addition to laparoscopic surgery could be considered in patients with early-stage gastric cancer. A prospective multicenter trial and meta-analyses of sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy for early-stage gastric cancer have demonstrated... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.83
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:582  | Downloaded:148
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Secondary malignancy estimation in patients after mastectomy and adjuvant therapy

    Oludare Folajimi Adeyemi, Okhuomaruyi David Osahon, Enosakhare Godwin Okungbowa
    Aim: Secondary malignancy estimation after radiotherapy of post mastectomy patients is becoming an important subject for comparative treatment planning. The data from modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patients, thereby opening up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. Methods: This study estimates the probability of secondary malignancy using radiobiological model for post mastectomy patients in a low-resource center, Nigeria. The secondary cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:53. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.12
    Published on: 8 Oct 2018  | Viewed:557  | Downloaded:25
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Two sides to colon cancer: mice mimic human anatomical region disparity in colon cancer development and progression

    Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Aaron C. Shang, Shien Hu, Shannon M. Larabee, Cinthia B. Drachenberg, Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Aim: Strong evidence reveals important differences between cancers in the proximal vs. distal colon. Animal models of metastatic colon cancer are available but with varying degrees of reproducibility and several important limitations. We explored whether there were regional differences in the location of murine colon cancers and assessed the utility of murine models to explore the biological basis for such differences. Methods: We re-analyzed data from our previous studies to assess the regional distribution of murine colon cancer. In survival surgery experiments, we injected HT-29 human... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:51. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.39
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:520  | Downloaded:22
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction of the special issue “How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?”

    Jason P. Webber, Klaus Pors
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:45. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.46
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:496  | Downloaded:139
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Bioconjugate structures vs. composite nanoparticulate carriers: the battle for the future of smart, effective and safe cancer management

    Mohamed Ismail Nounou
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:29. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.18
    Published on: 21 Jun 2018  | Viewed:486  | Downloaded:45
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  • Perspective|Open Access

    Pharmacogenetics and cancer management

    Harish Padh
    The science of one’s genetic background and its impact on disease susceptibility and drug response has come of age and firmly established its proper place in the clinic. Its impact is felt more in the treatment of cancer than any other disease area several reasons: critical time, narrow therapeutic index and overlapping toxicity window. We realize that the true potential of pharmacogenetics will be realized when we have been able to integrate other variants like insertion-deletion, copy number variation, etc., in addition to single nucleotide polymorphism for their collective influence on... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:52. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.51
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:439  | Downloaded:16
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction to the special issue on reviews of gastric cancer metastasis and treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:48. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.60
    Published on: 17 Sep 2018  | Viewed:430  | Downloaded:25
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of taxanes: a case report

    Nasser Mohammed Amer, Rabia Niaz
    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare complication of chemotherapy, however, few reports were published as a specific complication of taxanes. We are reporting this rare complication of a lady who was treated with taxanes as an adjuvant therapy for her breast cancer who was referred to us from the medical department and turned out to be necrotizing fasciitis in her right thigh. We are also presenting the literature review of this type of complication. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:34. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.09
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:430  | Downloaded:31
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  • Letter|Open Access

    Hypoxia in prostate cancer

    Peter Vaupel
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.30
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:406  | Downloaded:61
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy in colorectal cancer treatment: actual landscape and future perspectives

    Alessandro Bittoni, Valeria Sotte, Tania Meletani, Luca Cantini, Riccardo Giampieri, Rossana Berardi
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the second most common cancer in Europe with marked differences in prognosis and response to treatments. In the past years research showed emerging interest in genomic and immunologic fields. The clinical heterogeneity, that occurs during the pathogenesis of CRC, is driven by chromosomal alterations and defective function of DNA mismatch repair genes. CRC is classified in four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with different immunogenic characteristics and prognosis. CMS1 microsatellite instable (MSI)-like and CMS4, both characterized by high levels of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:55. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.37
    Published on: 26 Oct 2018  | Viewed:335  | Downloaded:12
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor cell invasion from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins during early-stage lymph node metastasis can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis

    Tetsuya Kodama, Shiro Mori, Masato Nose
    Aim: To investigate whether tumor cells in a lymph node (LN) can invade from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins via vessel branches that communicate with intranodal veins and whether this can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis at the early stage of LN metastasis. Methods: Vascular and lymphatic networks of LNs in MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice were investigated using three-dimensional micro-computed tomography and histological methods. Flow in the blood vessel networks of LNs was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. Tumor cells were injected into the subiliac LNs of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:56. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.61
    Published on: 9 Nov 2018  | Viewed:285  | Downloaded:21
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Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment ISSN 2454-2857 (Online), ISSN 2394-4722 (Print)
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