Most Viewed: Last TWO YEARS
  • Review

    Long non-coding RNAs as key regulators of cancer metastasis

    Pratirodh Koirala , De-Hong Zou , Yin-Yuan Mo
    The recent advances in functional genomics have discovered that a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed from the human genome. Increasing evidence further indicates that lncRNAs are important for gene expression during cell differentiation and development through various mechanisms such as nuclear organization, post-transcription regulation, alternative splicing, and epigenetic regulation. Thus, aberrant expression of lncRNAs can cause abnormality in those cellular functions and lead to various pathological conditions. One of such fatal consequences is...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
    Views: 160145
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  • Review

    Role of circulating tumor cells in future diagnosis and therapy of cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar , Navjeet Kaur Lotey
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become a blistering topic of discussion for oncologists because of their tremendous potential in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Over the past few years, they have been doled with quite an amount of research in this area understanding that CTCs are shed from tumors and circulate in the bloodstream. This process can also occur at an early stage of cancer. The major limitation in isolation of CTCs is their availability in limited numbers. Hence, many techniques have been developed and are under continuous improvement to enhance their effi cacy of CTC...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 17141
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Targeting cerebrospinal fluid for discovery of brain cancer biomarkers

    Tarek Shalaby , Federica Achini , Michael A. Grotzer
    Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is a devastating illness with unmet therapeutic needs. Establishing biomarkers that have the potential to guide accurate CNS cancer diagnosis or are helpful in predicting disease progression or therapy response is of great interest. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been extensively targeted for the detection of molecules that might be useful markers for cancer detection. However, so far very few of such markers have found a standardized routine clinical application. This review examines the current scientific knowledge about the biochemical elements in the...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 10868
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    The role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in brain tumor metastasis

    Silvia Crespo , Marcus Kind , Alexandre Arcaro
    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathway is involved in a variety of cellular functions and often contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression. It has been recognized that this pathway is frequently activated in the most common central nervous system cancers of adults and children, malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas (MB). In these tumors, the PAM network controls key functions necessary for cell invasion and metastasis, such as cell motility. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of PAM signaling in cell invasion and metastasis in gliomas and MB. Current approaches to...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
    Views: 10784
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Tailored nanocarriers and bioconjugates for combating glioblastoma and other brain tumors

    Fatema ELAmrawy , Amr A. Othman , Chris Adkins , Aliaa Helmy , Mohamed I. Nounou
    Worldwide, the incidence of primary brain tumors is on the rise. Unfortunately, noninvasive drug therapy is hampered by poor access of most drugs to the brain due to the insurmountable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanotechnology holds great promise for noninvasive therapy of severe brain diseases. Furthermore, recent bioconjugation strategies have enabled the invasion of the BBB via tailored-designed bioconjugates either with targeting moieties or alterations in the physicochemical and/or the pharmacokinetic parameters of central nervous system (CNS) active pharmaceutical ingredients....
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
    Views: 10772
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic inguinal lymph nodes with two different histological types in a case of carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Mukur Dipi Ray , Shivam Vatsal , Sunil Kumar
    Cancer of unknown primary site is a group of uncommon cancers where patients present with metastatic disease and the primary site is not identified, even after a complete workup to establish the diagnosis. Inguinal metastasis with unknown primary is even more uncommon, and histological type is the most important guiding factor to look for the primary. This report describes the rare situation of inguinal metastasis with an unknown primary site where a combination of squamous and transitional cell carcinoma was found on final histopathology. It highlights the importance of multimodality...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 9574
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  • Case Report

    Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as rapidly growing sternal mass: an unusual presentation

    Rahul S. Kulkarni , Asha S. Anand , Apurva A. Patel , Sandip A. Shah
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. The most frequent sites of metastases are lungs, regional lymph nodes, adrenals and bones. However, an isolated sternal metastasis from HCC as an initial presentation has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old man presented with a progressively increasing mass over the anterior chest wall. On investigations, it was found to be arising from the sternum. Histopathology was suggestive of metastatic HCC, later confirmed by the presence of a 9 cm × 7 cm mass in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan and a...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
    Views: 7906
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  • Review

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong , Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 7638
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells

    Yu Jeong Kim , Elizabeth L. Siegler , Natnaree Siriwon , Pin Wang
    The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs present a challenge for cancer therapy; these shortcomings are largely attributed to the ability of cancer cells to repopulate and metastasize after initial therapies. Compelling evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact in current shortcomings of cancer therapy because they are largely responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the properties and mechanisms underlying CSC resistance to treatments is necessary to improve patient...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
    Views: 7364
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  • Original Article

    Withania somnifera extract reduces the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and inhibits cytokines associated with metastasis

    Kamel F. Khazal , Donald L. Hill
    Aim: The aim was to examine the anti-proliferative effect of a Withania somnifera (WS) root extract in cell cultures and nude mouse xenografts of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Methods: WS root extract was used to treat tumor cells at concentrations up to 100 μg and for nude mouse experiments, the mice received daily WS at 300 mg/kg by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Results: The WS extract reduced viability of MDA-MB-231 cells by 75% and 88% after exposure of the cells to 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively, compared to vehicle-treated controls. WS extract caused a dose-dependent increase in the...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 6458
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  • Review

    Urothelial bladder cancer progression: lessons learned from the bench

    Julieta P. Afonso , Rui Freitas , Francisco Lobo , António Morais , Jorge Oliveira , Teresina Amaro , Rui M. Reis , Fátima M. Baltazar , Adhemar Longatto-Filho , Lúcio L. Santos
    Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is an intricate malignancy with a variable natural history and clinical behavior. Despite developments in diagnosis/prognosis refi nement and treatment modalities, the recurrence rate is high, and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive UBC commonly leads to metastasis. Moreover, patients with muscle-invasive or extra-vesical disease often fail the standard chemotherapy treatment, and overall survival rates are poor. Thus, UBC remains a challenge in the oncology fi eld, representing an ideal candidate for research on biomarkers that could identify...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 6219
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Dissecting brain tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and ex vivo

    Michael A. Grotzer , Anuja Neve , Martin Baumgartner
    Local infiltration and distal dissemination of tumor cells hamper efficacy of current treatments against central nervous system (CNS) tumors and greatly influence mortality and therapy-induced long-term morbidity in survivors. A number of in vitro and ex vivo assay systems have been established to better understand the infiltration and metastatic processes, to search for molecules that specifically block tumor cell infiltration and metastatic dissemination and to pre-clinically evaluate their efficaciousness. These systems allow analytical testing of tumor cell viability and motile and...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
    Views: 5939
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada , Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
    Views: 5522
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  • Original Article

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: clinical criteria for treatment strategy

    Agnese Savini , Rossana Berardi , Paola Mazzanti , Miriam Caramanti , Matteo Santoni , Mariagrazia De Lisa , Francesca Morgese , Silvia Rinaldi , Mariangela Torniai , Ilaria Fiordoliva , Azzurra Onofri , Stefano Cascinu
    Aim: Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of human cancer deaths worldwide, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most frequent histologic subtypes. The aim of our study was to analyze clinical factors potentially affecting the overall outcome of advanced lung SCC patients. Methods: A series of 72 consecutive patients with advanced SCC undergoing chemotherapy at our institution between January 2007 and July 2013 were eligible for our analysis. Results: By univariate analysis, a better overall survival (OS) was related to response to fi rst-line chemotherapy: median OS were...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 4934
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  • Original Article

    Non-anthracycline chemotherapy associated with a poor outcome in elderly Egyptian patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Ahmed A. Zeeneldin , Yasser A. Sallam , Ayman A. Gaber , Amgad A. Shaheen
    Aim: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCNHL). Nevertheless, anthracyclines are contraindicated for some patients, e.g. cardiac dysfunction, severe hepatic dysfunction, jaundice. Thus, this study assessed the effectiveness of non-anthracycline chemotherapy regimen cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) in elderly DLBCNHL patients vs. the standard CHOP. Methods: This retrospective study included 418 DLBCNHL patients diagnosed between 2003 and...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 4489
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  • Original Article

    Prognostic significance of transcription factors FOXA1 and GATA-3 in ductal carcinoma in situ in terms of recurrence and estrogen receptor status

    Mamatha Chivukula , Jennifer Picarsic , Gautam Bulusu , Adam Brufsky , Gretchen Ahrendt , Gloria Carter
    Aim: The aim was to analyze the expression of novel biological transcription markers, forkhead-box A1 (FOXA1), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), and established markers such as Ki-67 (MIB-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in estrogen receptor (ER(+)) and ER(-) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients with/without recurrence. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of DCIS were retrieved from our pathology database, with complete data available for 219 cases. The follow-up period is from 1988 to 2009. Recurrence is defined in terms of DCIS or invasive carcinoma (IC). No...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 4469
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  • Case Report

    Spinal intradural mature teratoma in an elderly patient

    Atef Ben Nsir , Karim Ben Hammouda , Imed Ben Said , Alia Zhani Kassar , Nidhameddine Kchir , Hafedh Jemel
    Spinal intradural mature teratomas are rarely encountered in adults. In this report, one of the oldest patients ever reported to harbor an intradural mature teratoma of the conus medullaris is presented, and the relevant literature concerning the teratoma’s origin, clinical presentation, radiological features, and treatment modalities is reviewed. A previously healthy 70-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of left sciatica. Her neurological examination was normal and the magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine showed an intradural, partially cystic mass extending...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
    Views: 4388
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Epigenetic changes in gastrointestinal cancers

    Hironobu Shigaki , Yoshifumi Baba , Kazuto Harada , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifi cation, loss of genome imprinting, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are associated with human carcinogenesis. Among them, DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process to modulate gene expression. In cancer cells, altered DNA methylation includes hypermethylation of site-specific CpG island promoter and global DNA hypo-methylation. Detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation has been applied to the clinic to stratify risk in cancer development, detect early cancer and predict clinical outcomes....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4340
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  • Review

    Growth factor receptors: promising drug targets in cancer

    Snigdha Tiash , Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
    Genetic, epigenetic and somatic changes deregulate the expression of growth factor receptors (GFRs), leading to cancer initiation and progression. Tumor cell growth and survival are orchestrated by clonal expansion and evasion of apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The growth of cells is further supported by angiogenesis and metastasis to distant organs. High expression of GFRs also contributes to the development of resistance. Therefore, therapeutics to target GFRs is a potentially attractive molecular approach to treat cancer more effectively. In this review, we have discussed the...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
    Views: 4304
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  • Review

    Molecular and cellular aspects of extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia

    Javad Mohammadiasl , Abbas Khosravi , Mohammad Shahjahani , Shirin Azizidoost , Najmaldin Saki
    The myeloid extramedullary tumor is a solid tumor formed by infiltration of immature myeloid cells in various tissues of the body. This tumor is also identified as chloroma or myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS is a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurring at presentation or during treatment or relapse. MS is associated with multiple chromosomal abnormalities and molecular mutations since patients with these disorders bear a high potential for MS manifestation. There is a high incidence of extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in AML. AML patients with EMI have a worse prognosis than patients...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
    Views: 4267
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