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  • Review|Open Access

    Long non-coding RNAs as key regulators of cancer metastasis

    Pratirodh Koirala , De-Hong Zou , Yin-Yuan Mo
    The recent advances in functional genomics have discovered that a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed from the human genome. Increasing evidence further indicates that lncRNAs are important for gene expression during cell differentiation and development through various mechanisms such as nuclear organization, post-transcription regulation, alternative splicing, and epigenetic regulation. Thus, aberrant expression of lncRNAs can cause abnormality in those cellular functions and lead to various pathological conditions. One of such fatal consequences is...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Targeting cerebrospinal fluid for discovery of brain cancer biomarkers

    Tarek Shalaby , Federica Achini , Michael A. Grotzer
    Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is a devastating illness with unmet therapeutic needs. Establishing biomarkers that have the potential to guide accurate CNS cancer diagnosis or are helpful in predicting disease progression or therapy response is of great interest. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been extensively targeted for the detection of molecules that might be useful markers for cancer detection. However, so far very few of such markers have found a standardized routine clinical application. This review examines the current scientific knowledge about the biochemical elements in the...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    The role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in brain tumor metastasis

    Silvia Crespo , Marcus Kind , Alexandre Arcaro
    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathway is involved in a variety of cellular functions and often contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression. It has been recognized that this pathway is frequently activated in the most common central nervous system cancers of adults and children, malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas (MB). In these tumors, the PAM network controls key functions necessary for cell invasion and metastasis, such as cell motility. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of PAM signaling in cell invasion and metastasis in gliomas and MB. Current approaches to...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Tailored nanocarriers and bioconjugates for combating glioblastoma and other brain tumors

    Fatema ELAmrawy , Amr A. Othman , Chris Adkins , Aliaa Helmy , Mohamed I. Nounou
    Worldwide, the incidence of primary brain tumors is on the rise. Unfortunately, noninvasive drug therapy is hampered by poor access of most drugs to the brain due to the insurmountable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanotechnology holds great promise for noninvasive therapy of severe brain diseases. Furthermore, recent bioconjugation strategies have enabled the invasion of the BBB via tailored-designed bioconjugates either with targeting moieties or alterations in the physicochemical and/or the pharmacokinetic parameters of central nervous system (CNS) active pharmaceutical ingredients....
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong , Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as rapidly growing sternal mass: an unusual presentation

    Rahul S. Kulkarni , Asha S. Anand , Apurva A. Patel , Sandip A. Shah
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. The most frequent sites of metastases are lungs, regional lymph nodes, adrenals and bones. However, an isolated sternal metastasis from HCC as an initial presentation has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old man presented with a progressively increasing mass over the anterior chest wall. On investigations, it was found to be arising from the sternum. Histopathology was suggestive of metastatic HCC, later confirmed by the presence of a 9 cm × 7 cm mass in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan and a...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment|Open Access

    Therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells

    Yu Jeong Kim , Elizabeth L. Siegler , Natnaree Siriwon , Pin Wang
    The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs present a challenge for cancer therapy; these shortcomings are largely attributed to the ability of cancer cells to repopulate and metastasize after initial therapies. Compelling evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact in current shortcomings of cancer therapy because they are largely responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the properties and mechanisms underlying CSC resistance to treatments is necessary to improve patient...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations|Open Access

    Dissecting brain tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and ex vivo

    Michael A. Grotzer , Anuja Neve , Martin Baumgartner
    Local infiltration and distal dissemination of tumor cells hamper efficacy of current treatments against central nervous system (CNS) tumors and greatly influence mortality and therapy-induced long-term morbidity in survivors. A number of in vitro and ex vivo assay systems have been established to better understand the infiltration and metastatic processes, to search for molecules that specifically block tumor cell infiltration and metastatic dissemination and to pre-clinically evaluate their efficaciousness. These systems allow analytical testing of tumor cell viability and motile and...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors|Open Access

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada , Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular and cellular aspects of extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia

    Javad Mohammadiasl , Abbas Khosravi , Mohammad Shahjahani , Shirin Azizidoost , Najmaldin Saki
    The myeloid extramedullary tumor is a solid tumor formed by infiltration of immature myeloid cells in various tissues of the body. This tumor is also identified as chloroma or myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS is a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurring at presentation or during treatment or relapse. MS is associated with multiple chromosomal abnormalities and molecular mutations since patients with these disorders bear a high potential for MS manifestation. There is a high incidence of extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in AML. AML patients with EMI have a worse prognosis than patients...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Review|Open Access

    Growth factor receptors: promising drug targets in cancer

    Snigdha Tiash , Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
    Genetic, epigenetic and somatic changes deregulate the expression of growth factor receptors (GFRs), leading to cancer initiation and progression. Tumor cell growth and survival are orchestrated by clonal expansion and evasion of apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The growth of cells is further supported by angiogenesis and metastasis to distant organs. High expression of GFRs also contributes to the development of resistance. Therefore, therapeutics to target GFRs is a potentially attractive molecular approach to treat cancer more effectively. In this review, we have discussed the...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Epigenetic changes in gastrointestinal cancers

    Hironobu Shigaki , Yoshifumi Baba , Kazuto Harada , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifi cation, loss of genome imprinting, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are associated with human carcinogenesis. Among them, DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process to modulate gene expression. In cancer cells, altered DNA methylation includes hypermethylation of site-specific CpG island promoter and global DNA hypo-methylation. Detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation has been applied to the clinic to stratify risk in cancer development, detect early cancer and predict clinical outcomes....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review|Open Access

    The features of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer

    Gianni Mura , Beatrice Verdelli
    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) from metastasization of Gastric Cancer (GC), either present at first diagnosis of GC or as recurrence, is considered a fatal disease with no hope of definitive cure. Although newer agents like S1 and docetaxel have shown some promise, the median overall survival with the current first line chemotherapy is only 8 to 14 months, and is not greatly improved by adding targeted therapy. A multi-modal approach with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed along the last two decades in order to...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    An unusual case of encapsulated papillary carcinoma of breast

    Kriti Chauhan , Monika Garg
    Intracystic (encapsulated) papillary carcinoma of breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. It is usually a low-grade tumor showing estrogen, progesterone positivity. The authors report an unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma showing high nuclear grade, brisk mitosis, and necrosis with triple negativity for estrogen, progesterone, and Her-2/neu receptors, as well as negative axillary lymph nodes. Such cases need to be reported to increase awareness so that they will be managed conservatively, avoiding any overtreatment despite being high grade and triple negative.
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Chronic inflammation and gastrointestinal cancer

    Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been studied extensively. Chronic inflammation is able to trigger cellular events to promote malignant transformation of normal epithelial cells in the GI tract to cancer. Host inflammation responses in carcinogenesis are through multiple mechanisms such as reactive oxygen and nitration species from mononuclear phagocytes and leukocytes, immune response and pro-infl ammatory cytokines. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review|Open Access

    Muscarinic receptor signaling and colon cancer progression

    Guofeng Xie , Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Due to the lack of effective treatments, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Emerging evidence supports the observation that muscarinic receptor (MR) signaling plays a critical role in growth and progression of CRC. MR activation by acetylcholine and bile acids results in transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and post-EGFR signal transduction that enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, the authors review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MR-mediated CRC...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Molecular insights into colorectal cancer stem cell regulation by environmental factors

    Daisuke Izumi , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Hideo Baba
    Colorectal cancer remains a significant cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, mainly because of tumor relapse and metastases. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the main cause of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, as well as being responsible for distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves possess innate abilities for self-renewal and differentiation, the environment surrounding CSCs provides oxygen, nutrients and secreted factors, and also supports angiogenesis, thus it's responsible for maintaining their CSC properties. Furthermore, extensive investigations have...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine tumor of mandible

    Jitender Batra , Chinmay D. Vakade , Sonal Grover , Gyanander Attresh
    Neuroendocrine tumors of the oral cavity and jaws are exceedingly rare. They include paragangliomas, a melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infants, small cell carcinomas, and Merckel cell carcinomas. Most have been non-functional in nature. Breast, lung, liver, colon, and prostate are the most common reported primary malignancies which can metastasize to the oral cavity. In most cases, oral metastases involve maxilla and mandible rather than soft tissues. The premolar-molar region is the most common localization. The purpose of this article is to describe a rare case of a high grade...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in gastrointestinal cancer

    Masaaki Iwatsuki , Junji Kurashige , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Keisuke Kosumi , Yoshifumi Baba , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are originated from the primary tumor lesion into the blood stream. CTCs could lead to recurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, even after a curative resection and colonizing in the distant organs to facilitate tumor distant metastasis; however, it has been challenging in clinic to detect CTCs for a long time, such as detection methodology or molecular markers for identification of CTCs. This review discussed the recent technical advances and biomarkers in the detection of CTCs and the molecular mechanism of CTC in cancer progression and metastasis....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies|Open Access

    Trends in clinical use of targeted therapy for gastrointestinal cancers

    Kojiro Eto , Masayuki Watanabe
    Targeted drugs therapies that block the molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of gastro-intestinal (GI) cancers have recently gained considerable attention. In addition to agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor, the multi-kinase inhibitor, and regorafenib have also become available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Currently, trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), in combination with cytotoxic drugs is considered as the standard treatment for...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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