Published Special Issues
Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies
  • Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 3 of Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Epigenetic changes in gastrointestinal cancers

    Hironobu Shigaki , Yoshifumi Baba , Kazuto Harada , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifi cation, loss of genome imprinting, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are associated with human carcinogenesis. Among them, DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process to modulate gene expression. In cancer cells, altered DNA methylation includes hypermethylation of site-specific CpG island promoter and global DNA hypo-methylation. Detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation has been applied to the clinic to stratify risk in cancer development, detect early cancer and predict clinical outcomes....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Overview of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma: recent findings by next generation sequencing

    Yu Imamura , Ryuma Tokunaga , Kenichi Nakamura , Hideo Baba , Masayuki Watanabe
    Esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma is commonly treated as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and has dramatically increased in Western countries for several decades. The similar trend has been observed in Asian countries (not in China). Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a widely accepted precursor of EAC. Recent advances of next-generation sequencing could provide researchers with a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the carcinogenesis of EAC. In this review, we have summarized the recently reported major genetic and epigenetic alterations in both BE and EAC. Sonic...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in gastrointestinal cancer

    Masaaki Iwatsuki , Junji Kurashige , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Keisuke Kosumi , Yoshifumi Baba , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are originated from the primary tumor lesion into the blood stream. CTCs could lead to recurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, even after a curative resection and colonizing in the distant organs to facilitate tumor distant metastasis; however, it has been challenging in clinic to detect CTCs for a long time, such as detection methodology or molecular markers for identification of CTCs. This review discussed the recent technical advances and biomarkers in the detection of CTCs and the molecular mechanism of CTC in cancer progression and metastasis....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Chronic inflammation and gastrointestinal cancer

    Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been studied extensively. Chronic inflammation is able to trigger cellular events to promote malignant transformation of normal epithelial cells in the GI tract to cancer. Host inflammation responses in carcinogenesis are through multiple mechanisms such as reactive oxygen and nitration species from mononuclear phagocytes and leukocytes, immune response and pro-infl ammatory cytokines. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • MicroRNAs in gastrointestinal cancer: a novel biomarker and its clinical application

    Yukiharu Hiyoshi , Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers remain one of the most common malignancies and are the major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Significant advancements have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis and pathology of GI cancers, but high mortality rates, an unfavorable prognosis, and lack of clinical predictive biomarkers provide an impetus to investigate novel diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for GI cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-24 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, thus playing an...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Molecular insights into colorectal cancer stem cell regulation by environmental factors

    Daisuke Izumi , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Hideo Baba
    Colorectal cancer remains a significant cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, mainly because of tumor relapse and metastases. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the main cause of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, as well as being responsible for distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves possess innate abilities for self-renewal and differentiation, the environment surrounding CSCs provides oxygen, nutrients and secreted factors, and also supports angiogenesis, thus it's responsible for maintaining their CSC properties. Furthermore, extensive investigations have...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Trends in clinical use of targeted therapy for gastrointestinal cancers

    Kojiro Eto , Masayuki Watanabe
    Targeted drugs therapies that block the molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of gastro-intestinal (GI) cancers have recently gained considerable attention. In addition to agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor, the multi-kinase inhibitor, and regorafenib have also become available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Currently, trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), in combination with cytotoxic drugs is considered as the standard treatment for...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Cancer metabolism in gastrointestinal cancer

    Hiroshi Sawayama , Nobutomo Miyanari , Hideo Baba
    Cancer cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, anaerobic glycolysis and upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recent genetic and metabolic analyses have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of genes that are involved in the alteration of cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis. Hypoxic induced factor 1 regulates the reciprocal relationship between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and p53 also modulates the balance between the glycolytic pathway and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria function in cancer differs from that in...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastroenterological cancer

    Hirohisa Okabe , Kosuke Mima , Seiya Saito , Hiromitsu Hayashi , Katsunori Imai , Hidetoshi Nitta , Daisuke Hashimoto , Akira Chikamoto , Takatoshi Ishiko , Toru Beppu , Hideo Baba
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was first reported as an essential process in embryonic cells and later showed that cancer cells, regardless of the context, exhibited a similar phenomenon that was crucial for tumor progression. Epithelial cells lose their adhesive characteristic capacity which is necessary for their functions but gain a mesenchymal phenotype. This change from epithelial to the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells makes it difficult to understand the mechanism underlying cancer biology and tumor progression. A number of transcription factors involved in tumor cell...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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