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J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2021;7:[Accepted].10.20517/2394-4722.2021.96@The Author(s) 2021
Accepted Manuscript
Open AccessReview

Pancreatic cancer: genetics, disease progression, therapeutic resistance and treatment strategies

Correspondence Address: Dr. Hari K. Koul, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Urology and Stanley S Scott Cancer Center School of Medicine LSU Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. E-mail:


© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease and the third highest cause of cancer related deaths in United States. It has a very low five-year survival rate (<5%). The current gemcitabine based therapy is highly ineffective and surgical resection provides only selective benefit. Signature mutations in pancreatic cancer confer chemoresistance by deregulating cell cycle and promoting anti-apoptotic mechanisms. The stroma-rich tumor microenvironment impairs drug delivery and promotes tumor specific immunity. All these factors render the current treatment incompetent and prompt an urgent need for new improved therapy. In this review, we have discussed the genetics of pancreatic cancer and its role in tumor evolution and treatment resistance. We have also evaluated new treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer like targeted therapy and immunotherapy.

Cite This Article

Singh K, Shishodia G, Koul HK. Pancreatic cancer: genetics, disease progression, therapeutic resistance and treatment strategies. J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2021;7:[Accept].

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