Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are a late result of DNA damage in the normal hematopoietic compartment triggered by cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for the treatment of prior neoplasms, autoimmune diseases and solid organ transplants. The category includes therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and therapy-related MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasm (t-MDS/MPN). Patients with t-MN have a poor prognosis. Causes associated with the development of t-MN span from inherited genetic predisposition (germline mutations) to more recently the presence of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential at the time of treatment. Subtypes of t-MN and response to therapies depend on the type of treatment (alkylating/radiotherapy, topoisomerase II inhibitors). This special issue will focus on the late consequences of chemotherapy and/or radiation, genetics, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to the development of t-MN.