Significant progress in cancer diagnosis and treatment has contributed to improved clinical outcomes for many cancers. However, cancer remains a major health problem around the globe. Early detection of malignant tumors that are still treatable (e.g., surgical removal) is key to lowering cancer-related mortality and improving patient survival. Compared to tissue-based cancer diagnosis approaches that may be limited by for example the issue of tumor heterogeneity, difficulty in obtaining tissue at certain body locations, and possible complications associated with the biopsy procedure, approaches utilizing liquid biopsy (i.e., bodily fluids such as blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, sweat) have been demonstrated as a noninvasive or minimally-invasive, clinically convenient alternative that has been attracting more and more research efforts during the past few years. Specifically, tumor-derived mutational, epigenetic, and transcriptomic features are contained in certain bodily fluids from a patient, thus providing the rationale for developing cancer biomarkers based on these specimens. Furthermore, during the past few years exciting technical advances have emerged to allow profiling various molecular targets in a variety of clinical specimens. In this special issue, we are interested in publishing original articles, reviews, short communications, and technical notes that cover the broad area of cancer early diagnosis using liquid biopsy.
1. Francesca Malentacchi Clinical Experimental and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
2. Ciro Comparetto Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, City Hospital, Italy.
3. Stefan Bossmann Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA.
4. Jian-Ping Wang Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
5. Gerhard Hamilton Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
6. Massimo Cristofanilli Department of Medicine-Hematology and Oncology, Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, USA.
7. Gerard J Davis Abbott Diagnostics Division, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, USA.
8. Danilo Tagle National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.
9. Christine Happel HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA.
10. Masakazu Toi Department of Breast Surgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
11. Katharina Pachmann Medizinisches Labor Pachmann, SIMFO GmbH, Kurpromenade, Germany.
12. Mohammad Amin Kerachian Cancer Genetics Research Unit, Reza Radiotherapy and Oncology Center, Mashhad, Iran, Medical Genetics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
The list is arranged in no particular order and being updated.
Articles of special issue are free of charge for article processing.
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Title: Extracellular RNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Cancer
Authors: Christine Happel1, Aniruddha Ganguly2, Shashi Amur3, Danilo Tagle1
Affiliations: 1. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20903, USA
Abstract: The discovery that secreted RNA (exRNA) is transported between cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs) suggested that exRNAs plays an important role in intercellular communication. Moreover, exRNAs have utility as biomarkers of disease. However, many gaps in knowledge and technical challenges in EVs and exRNA biology, such as mechanisms of EV biogenesis and uptake, exRNA cargo selection, and exRNA detection remain. The NIH Common Fund-supported exRNA Communication Consortium (ERCC) was launched in 2013 to address the major scientific challenges in this field. This article will focus on scientific highlights particularly in biomarker discovery of EV-based exRNA in cancer and the utility of exRNAs as clinical biomarkers.
Title: Circulating tumour DNA in the era of smart medicine for breast cancer
Authors: Masakazu Toi, Ravi Velaga
Affiliations: Breast Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan
Abstract: Tumour trail left by cancer cells in blood gives an immense opportunity and hope to identify and treat early stage cancers. Next generation sequencing complemented by advances in bioinformatics paved way for liquid biopsy to help identify the genomic evolution of cancer progression. Although catching early mutational events leading to cancer is still work in progress, circulating tumour DNA has been widely accepted by oncologists as a biomarker in detecting early treatment response or efficacy. Minimal invasive nature of liquid biopsy offers great potential in disease diagnosis, pre & post-surgery monitoring and smart therapeutic choices. Genomic landscape of circulating tumour DNA matching with paired solid tumour could help develop smart medicine.
Title: Liquid biopsy on Endometrial cancer: un update
Authors: Francesca Malentacchi1, Chiara Sgromo1, Serena Pillozzi2
Affiliations: 1Department of Clinical, Experimental and Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy
2Medical Oncology Unit, AOU Careggi, Firenze, Italy
Abstract: Liquid biopsy is an emerging tool for the screening, diagnosis and monitoring treatment of cancer. Moreover, the biospecimen contained in liquid biopsy can improve the knowledge in cancer evolution. Endometrial cancer is a tumor usually detect at low stage with good prognosis, but some of them, unexpectedly can evolve to bad prognosis. Up to now no molecular target exists to treat advanced stage or to define the evolution of low stage. This review aims to focus on how the liquid biopsy may be help in the management and cancer characterization of patients affected by endometrial cancer.
Title: Magnetic Nanotechnologies for Early Cancer Diagnostics With Liquid Biopsies: A Review.
Authors: Diqing Su, Kai Wu, Chaoyi Peng, Renata Saha and Jian-Ping Wang
Affiliations: University of Minnesota
Abstract: Liquid biopsy has become an emerging technology in the detection of cancer related biomarkers as well as the continuous monitoring of cancer treatment. There have been extensive research on the application of magnetic nanotechnologies in liquid biopsies from the separation of target analyte to the detection of cancer biomarkers. Magnetic separation plays an important role in increasing both the efficiency and sensitivity of the liquid biopsy process. The detection of cancer biomarkers through magnetic nanosensors also possesses many advantages such as low background noise, high sensitivity, short assay time and the ability to detect multiple biomarkers at the same time. This review will focus on the recent advances of magnetic nanotechnologies in liquid biopsies for cancer detection and its future potential in comparison with other technologies.