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  • 17 Aug
    2016
    Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Merkel cell carcinoma responsive to Etoposide: a case report and brief literature review

    Chiara Ancona , Andrea Caff , Giovanni Manfredi Assanto , Stefano Cordio
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), first described in 1972, is an aggressive primary cutaneous carcinoma able to incorporate both epithelial and neuroendocrine features. MCC mainly appears in individuals in their eighth decade and it is related to a high mortality rate. The etiology of this rare disease is not well-understood but ultraviolet radiation exposure, immune suppression, and aging have a consistent role in its pathogenesis. Usually, clinical lesions appear as asymptomatic coloured dermal nodules. The tumour can involve lymph nodes but further evaluation with imaging is recommended. The...
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  • 17 Aug
    2016
    Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Controversies in the treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors

    Maria Rinzivillo , Francesco Panzuto , Gianfranco Delle Fave
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; the gap between these rates is due to the relatively long survival time of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Recently, more therapeutic options have become available, but criteria for defining timing, priority and sequence of different therapeutic options are still debated. This review offers an overview of pancreatic and small bowel NETs, critically underlining the issues that still...
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  • 17 Aug
    2016
    Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Management of hepatic metastases of well/moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract

    Anna La Salvia , Stefano Partelli , Marco Tampellini , Domenico Tamburrino , Massimo Falconi , Giorgio V. Scagliotti , Maria Pia Brizzi
    In neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), liver metastases (LM) represent the most crucial prognostic factor, irrespective of the primary tumor site. At diagnosis, about 65-95% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show hepatic metastasis. Management strategies of LM are heterogeneous and range from systemic therapy to liver-directed procedures. The type of systemic therapy used is dependent on the grade and proliferation of the tumor and includes somatostatin analogues, interferon, m-Tor and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Angiographic liver-directed techniques,...
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  • 17 Aug
    2016
    Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: current therapies, notch signaling, and cancer stem cells

    Judy S. Crabtree , Lucio Miele
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies all derived from neuroendocrine cell lineage, affecting many different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the endocrine pancreas, the thyroid, the skin and the respiratory tract. These tumors as a group are very heterogeneous, with varying characteristics attributed to each tissue of origin and tumor subtype. The pathogenesis of the different subtypes of NETs is not fully understood, but recent studies suggest the Notch signaling pathway may be dysregulated in these tumors either by under or...
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  • 17 Aug
    2016
    Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex disease

    Rossana Berardi
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  • 29 Jul
    2016
    Original Article

    Oxidative stress and breast cancer biomarkers: the case of the cytochrome P450 2E1

    Subir Singh , Ramkumar Rajendran , Kengo Kuroda , Emiko Isogai , Marija Krstic-Demonacos , Constantinos Demonacos
    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the cytochrome P450 2E1, which is the most efficient CYP450 family member in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), on cellular energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and therefore the effects of CYP2E1 on breast carcinogenesis. Methods: The estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used as experimental system to estimate ROS generation in these cells overexpressing CYP2E1 and treated with the glycolytic inhibitors 3-bromopyruvate or 2-deoxyglucose in the presence or absence of...
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