Articles
  • Original Article

    Expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, PUMA in lung tissues of lung cancer patients in the Xuanwei and non-Xuanwei areas of Yunnan Province

    Kai-Yun Yang , Zhi-Qiang Shen , Yue-Feng He , Kushal Rizal , Hui Tan , An-Ning Chen , Yun-Chao Huang , Guang-Qiang Zhao , Yu-Jie Lei
    Aim: To study the expression of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in lung tissue of patients with lung cancer from Xuanwei of Yunnan Province. Methods: Forty-five cases of lung cancer patients from Xuanwei and 42 lung cancer cases from non-Xuanwei were enrolled. Extraction of RNA was done using the Trizol kit. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was done to obtain the relative expression. Results: Expressions of PANDA, LincRNA-p21, and PUMA in male and female patients or in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, expression of...
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017
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  • Review

    DNA damage-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and its roles in cancer progression

    Wei Wang , Arul M. Mani , Zhao-Hui Wu
    DNA damage is a vital challenge to cell homeostasis. Cellular responses to DNA damage (DDR) play essential roles in maintaining genomic stability and survival, whose failure could lead to detrimental consequences such as cancer development and aging. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that plays critical roles in cellular stress response. Along with p53, NF-kB modulates transactivation of a large number of genes which participate in various cellular processes involved in DDR. Here the authors summarize the recent progress in understanding DNA damage response...
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017
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  • Original Article

    Percutaneous, computed tomography guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients

    Periklis Zavridis , Maria Tsitskari , Argyro Mazioti , Dimitrios Filippiadis
    Aim: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided neurolysis using continuous radiofrequency for pain reduction in oncologic patients. Methods: Over the course of 16 months, 22 patients underwent radiofrequency neurolysis as palliative therapy for pain reduction in celiac and splachnic plexus (n = 9), thoracic (n = 1), lumbar (n = 2) and superior hypogastric plexus (n = 5), as well as stellate ganglion (n = 5). Pain levels before treatment, one week after treatment, and at the last follow-up (average follow-up 6 months) were compared by means...
    Published on: 27 Mar 2017
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  • Review

    Cytogenetic and molecular basis of BCR-ABL myelodysplastic syndrome: diagnosis and prognostic approach

    Mostafa Paridar , Omid Kiani Ghalesardi , Mohammad Seghatoleslami , Ahmad Ahmadzadeh , Abbas Khosravi , Najmaldin Saki
    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a heterogeneous group of blood disorders generally afflicting older people. Several genetic factors have been reported from these patients that have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. BCR-ABL1 is a genetic factor that has occasionally been reported in some studies. This review attempts to characterize MDS patients reported to harbor this fusion and to assess the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic potential of BCR-ABL1 fusionin MDS patients. This review showed that BCR-ABL fusion has been reported in 22...
    Published on: 28 Feb 2017
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    A versatile method for enumeration and characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with breast cancer

    Ujjwala M. Warawdekar , Vani Parmar , Aruna Prabhu , Abhay Kulkarni , Meenal Chaudhari , Rajendra A. Badwe
    Aim: To establish a standardized protocol for the isolation and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Methods: The protocol used tumor cells spiked in a lymphoid cell line with detection by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Cells of the human mammary cancer subtypes were spiked into Jurkat cells, which served as the lymphocyte designate in numbers from 10 to 500 per 105 Jurkat cells. This mixed population was probed for CD45, EpCAM, and pancytokeratin acquired...
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017
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  • Case Report

    Alkaline phosphatase flare with hyperostosis of bone metastases in lung adenocarcinoma treated with gefitinib

    Hiroto Kaneko , Kazuho Shimura , Yosuke Matsumoto , Mihoko Yoshida , Masafumi Taniwaki , Junya Kuroda
    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) flare has been reported to occur during cancer treatment as a favorable event, particularly in the presence of bone metastasis. There have been only a few reports in lung cancer and associated radiographic findings have seldom been described. The authors observed ALP flare in a female patient with lung adenocarcinoma soon after the initiation of gefitinib. Moreover, on computed tomography, metastatic lesions of the rib and thoracic spine showed marked hyperostosis, with sizes larger than the original bone structure, suggesting efficacy of gefitinib. The...
    Published on: 23 Feb 2017
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    Lung cancer biopsy dislodges tumor cells into circulating blood

    Noriyoshi Sawabata , Tomotaka Kitamura , Yuko Nitta , Tomoyo Taketa , Takeshi Ohno , Tatsuya Fukumori , Takeru Hyakutake , Takahito Nakamura
    Aim: A “seed” of lung cancer metastasis is circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which may be dislodged from a tumor during biopsy. This possibility was assessed among patients who underwent lung tumor biopsy using flexible fiber-topic bronchoscopy (FFB). Methods: The study involved six patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent FFB biopsy to diagnose a lesion pathologically (5 males and 1 female, median age 63 years, six adenocarcinomas, of four clinical-stage IA, one stage IB, and one stage IIIA), CTCs were extracted from the peripheral vein blood at pre-FFB and at post-FFB using a...
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    Profiling of circulating tumor cells in liquid biopsies from metastatic cancer patients

    Pravin D. Potdar , Keerti Sen
    Aim: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are crucial to tumor metastasis and valuable for prediction of clinical outcome in patients with solid tumors. Here, the authors aimed to establish a method for enumeration and characterization of CTCs from liquid biopsies. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated from blood samples from patients with metastatic cancer using Ficoll-Hypaque gradients and cultured to isolate and enumerate CTCs. Cultured CTCs were morphologically characterized by light and phase contrast microscopy. The tumorigenicity of Ficoll-Hypaque-separated...
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017
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  • Letter to Editor

    Use of a dedicated day care unit in a modern radiation oncology facility -- a short audit

    Tejinder Kataria , Susovan Banerjee , Nimesh Dahima , Deepak Gupta , Trinanjan Basu , Shikha Goyal
    Published on: 23 Jan 2017
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    Circulating tumor cells: hope to diagnose and treat metastatic cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar
    Published on: 12 Jan 2017
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  • Original Article

    ERCC1 expression in patients with colorectal cancer: a pilot study

    Kinjal K. Gajjar , Deep Kumari Yadav , Toral P. Kobawala , Trupti I. Trivedi , Hemangini H. Vora , Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: Excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has a key role in enhanced DNA damage repair caused by oxaliplatin-based therapy and may lead to resistance of these platinum drugs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Hence, the present preliminary study aimed to explore the role of ERCC1 C/T polymorphism at codon 118 as well as its immunoreactivity in patients with primary CRC. Methods: ERCC1 polymorphism was studied using PCR-RFLP and ERCC1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 50 CRC patients. Results: ERCC1 codon 118 C/T polymorphism analysis reported the...
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016
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  • Review

    Targeting Toll-like receptors against cancer

    Bing Du , Qiu-Li Jiang , Joseph Cleveland , Bing-Rong Liu , Dekai Zhang
    The discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) about 20 years ago was a remarkable achievement not only in the field of immunology but also in the field of medicine. The TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors which play an important role in immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLRs also recognize danger-associated molecular patterns, which are associated with some diseases such as cancer. Recent evidence shows that TLRs are expressed not only in immune cells but also in tumor cells. The TLRs appear to play a role in tumor progression and...
    Published on: 29 Dec 2016
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    The significance and clinical utility of the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells: a review of the evidence

    Nigel P. Murray
    Primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) are those detected in blood before definitive treatment for prostate cancer. CPCs can be detected in men with benign prostate disease; however, some methods to distinguish between benign and malignant prostate cells have to be validated. This study presents a review of the subject, including theoretical considerations for the selection of markers to detect them, the different methods used, and the utility of their detection in identifying men with prostate cancer and as a prognostic factor.
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016
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  • Topic: Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostics and Clinical Applications

    Insights into mechanisms of tumor dissemination from circulating tumor cell lines of small cell lung cancer

    Gerhard Hamilton , Barbara Rath
    Despite the fact that the majority of cancer patients succumb to metastatic disease, most aspects of tumor metastasis are not understood in detail at present. Cell biologic steps of dissemination are difficult to characterize in human tumors and research is in large part confined to cell line and experimental animal studies. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), intravasation of malignant cells, dissemination as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and eventually mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) at distal sites are steps believed to be involved in metastasis. Small cell lung cancer...
    Published on: 16 Dec 2016
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  • Case Report

    Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue 18 years after renal transplantation: a case report

    Jyoti Poddar , Ashutosh Das Sharma , Ubrangala Suryanarayana Kunikullaya
    Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing malignancies, even decades after transplant, due to the prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. A 35-year-old male underwent renal transplant for end stage renal disease 18 years previously and was on immunosuppressive drugs since that time and was on regular follow up. In 2016, he developed a squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, which was operated and adjuvant radiation therapy was given. The patient is currently on follow up and asymptomatic. Though squamous cell carcinoma of tongue is a relatively common malignancy in...
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016
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  • Original Article

    Nibrin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters

    Jigna H. Dave , Hemangini H. Vora , Trupti I. Trivedi , Nandita R. Ghosh
    Aim: The present study sought to discover the role of Nibrin protein in 100 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its potential relationship with clinicopathological parameters. Methods: Nibrin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically using the modified H-score method. Results: The present study included 20% of patients with stage I disease, 22% of patients with stage II disease, 18% of patients with stage III disease, and 40% of patients with stage IV disease. Nibrin showed a significant positive correlation with moderately/poorly differentiated tumor tissues (P =...
    Published on: 25 Nov 2016
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  • Meeting Abstracts

    Obergurgl Research Conference Abstracts on "Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment"

    Ira-Ida Skvortsova
    Published on: 16 Nov 2016
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  • Review

    Nanocarrier drugs in the treatment of brain tumors

    Tereza Cerna , Marie Stiborova , Vojtech Adam , Rene Kizek , Tomas Eckschlager
    Nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery of drugs might significantly reduce the dosage and optimize their release properties, increase specificity and bioavailability, improve shelf life, and reduce toxicity. Some nanodrugs are able to overcome the blood-brain barrier that is an obstacle to treatment of brain tumors. Vessels in tumors have abnormal architecture and are highly permeable; moreover, tumors also have poor lymphatic drainage, allowing for accumulation of macromolecules greater than approximately 40 kDa within the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles exploit this feature, known...
    Published on: 31 Oct 2016
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic clostridial myonecrosis secondary to perforated metastatic bowel cancer

    Nasser Mohammed Amer , John Karayanis
    Spontaneous metastatic clostridial myonecrosis is a rare condition caused by Clostridium septicum. The underlying lesion is usually either a colonic neoplasm or leukemia. The authors reported a 67-year-old female who presented with acute abdomen secondary to a perforated sigmoid cancer and who developed gas gangrene in her right leg. Unfortunately, despite all resuscitative measures, she died. The authors reviewed the literature; the diagnosis of metastatic myonecrosis was based on a high index of suspicion, development of bullae containing gram-positive rods, and subcutaneous crepitus...
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016
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  • Original Article

    Sunitinib effectiveness and safety as first line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in the Costa Rican population

    Esteban Gonzalez , Silvia Alfaro , Allan Ramos-Esquivel , Denis Ulises Landaverde
    Aim: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are part of the armamentarium to treat metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC). Costa Rica has approved sunitinib in the first line setting. The authors conducted a retrospective study to address the effectiveness and safety profile of sunitinib in our population in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Methods: The authors analyzed all patients who were treated with sunitinib diagnosed with mRCC in the three National Hospitals (Hospital Mexico, Hospital San Juan de Dios, and Hospital Calderon Guardia) from February 2007 to June...
    Published on: 21 Oct 2016
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  • Case Report

    Isolated breast metastasis mimicking as second primary cancer - a case report

    Manjari Shah , Umang Mithal , Sandeep Agarwal , Sweety Gupta , Disha Tiwari , Shashank Srinivasan , Asheesh Jain , Ritu Chandra
    Primary carcinoma of breast is common but breast is a rare site of metastasis and metastases from extramammary sites are even rarer. Metastasis to breast from rectal carcinoma is very unusual and till now 19 cases of breast secondaries from colorectal carcinoma have been reported in literature which include 14 cases where the primary site was colon and remaining 5 were from the rectum. Here the authors report a case of adenocarcinoma anorectum who had completed treatment and after 4 months developed a lump in her left breast which was metastatic. Metastatic lesions of breast are usually...
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report

    A small solitary fibrous tumor of the bladder

    Guido Petracco , Carlo Patriarca
    The authors present a case of histologically benign and incidentally discovered millimetric solitary fibrous tumor of the bladder, invisible to radiologic imaging and clinically benign. The case came to our attention because of repeated episodes of renal colic. As opposed to the present case, solitary fibrous tumor are generally discovered when they reach certain dimensions, being slow-growing, painless masses. Such a tumor of the bladder is a very rare finding, with less than 20 cases reported, and it has yet to be described with such a small size. The main differential diagnoses are...
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016
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  • Original Article

    Do elderly NSCLC stage IV patients benefit from chemotherapy as well as younger? An analysis from clinical practice date

    Regina Gironés , Pedro López , Rebeca Chulvi , Mamen Cañabate
    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment related to age in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We compared young and elders (> 70) in the setting of a regional Spanish hospital. We hypothesized that elder benefit as much as younger patients from chemotherapy in stage IV NSCLC. The study was limited to performance status 0-2. Methods: Clinical and demographic characteristics were reviewed form medical records. Type of treatment was collected and compared, as well as benefit from treatment, in terms of overall survival. Results: 322 patients (162...
    Published on: 30 Sep 2016
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  • Review

    The features of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer

    Gianni Mura , Beatrice Verdelli
    Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) from metastasization of Gastric Cancer (GC), either present at first diagnosis of GC or as recurrence, is considered a fatal disease with no hope of definitive cure. Although newer agents like S1 and docetaxel have shown some promise, the median overall survival with the current first line chemotherapy is only 8 to 14 months, and is not greatly improved by adding targeted therapy. A multi-modal approach with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) associated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed along the last two decades in order to...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
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  • Case Report

    Pediatric gliomatosis cerebri presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage leading to poor outcome

    Hiromasa Adachi , Masashi Kitagawa , Toshinari Kawasaki , Takafumi Wataya
    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is an uncommon disease, defined as diffuse infiltration of neoplastic glial cells involving at least three cerebral lobes. GCs in young population are rare. We described a case of 14-year-old woman with GC who did not receive any recommended treatment, because the patient’s family refused. The patient had a rapid deterioration in 5 months after first symptoms due to intratumoral bleeding. This is the first case report of intratumoral bleeding after diagnosis of GC is made, resulting in poor outcome. GC may acquire possibility of intratumoral hemorrhage through its...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
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  • Review

    Function of cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix in tumor progression

    Gao-Feng Xiong , Ren Xu
    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer development and progression are associated with increased ECM deposition and crosslink. The chemical and physical signals elicited from ECM are necessary for cancer cell proliferation and invasion. It is well recognized that stromal cells are a major source of ECM proteins. However, recent studies showed that cancer cells are also an active and important component in ECM remodeling. Cancer cells deposit a significant amount of collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin C (TNC). Recent studies demonstrate...
    Published on: 18 Sep 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers. Why? When? How? Suggestions for clinical practice from guidelines and consensus

    Paola Razzore , Giorgio Arnaldi
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NETs) are rare tumors that are increasing in incidence. NETs are characterized by heterogeneous biological behaviour, clinical presentation and course. A sensitive and specific diagnostic and prognostic circulating biomarker useful for all sites, grading and staging of neuroendocrine tumors is still an unmet need. The aim of this article was to review current neuroendocrine and oncologic scientific society guidelines and position statements, and propose recommendations for the most frequent clinical practice queries on circulating neuroendocrine tumors biomarkers....
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with hypoglycemia and elevated insulin-like growth factor II: a case report

    Roberta Modica , Antonella Di Sarno , Annamaria Colao , Antongiulio Faggiano
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) can be associated with different clinical syndromes. Insulinoma is the most common functioning pNET characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The authors report a case of a man presenting with hypoglycemia and biochemical features of insulinoma. A pancreatic lesion was found and growth hormone (GH) deficiency was also diagnosed associated with an empty sella present on the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. The disappearance of hypoglycemia and normalization of GH secretion after surgical resection of the pancreatic lesion, revealed a...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Orbital lesions, an exceedingly rare site of neuroendocrine tumor metastasis

    Sara Pusceddu , Massimo Milione , Silvia Ortolani , Alessio Pellegrinelli , Marco Brugia , Filippo de Braud , Lorenzo Antonuzzo
    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare neoplasms arising primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and lung. The liver is the most common site of metastases, but these tumors can rarely metastasize to atypical sites. Surgery is the only curative approach while the optimal medical treatment is debated. From this perspective, a multidisciplinary approach for each single case becomes very important. In this report we describe the case of a male affected by a single intraorbital metastasis from a midgut well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. The patient refused surgical removal and therefore he was at...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Medical therapy for advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors

    Mariangela Torniai , Silvia Rinaldi , Francesca Morgese , Giulia Ricci , Azzurra Onofri , Christian Grohé , Rossana Berardi
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a spectrum of rare neoplasms arising in different organism sites. Depending on the site of onset, they also can be distinguished using lab exams (secreting vs. nonsecreting), clinical symptoms (functioning vs. nonfunctioning), behavioral, morphological characteristics (tumor cells’ architectural growth patterns, mitotic and Ki-67 index, presence of necrosis), and grade of cellular differentiation. The aim of this review is to focus on the main signaling pathways targeted by medical treatments of advanced sporadic gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Double tracer PET/CT: what is it and what does it mean?

    Mattia Pellicciari , Silvia Ortolani , Elisabetta Grego , Giampaolo Tortora , Sara Cingarlini
    68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT is a recommended imaging modality in the workup of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), which shows high diagnostic sensitivity and is a strong predictor of successful somatostatin receptor directed treatments. Although not routinely recommended, reliable evidences show that 18F-FDG PET/CT can provide complementary information in this setting with the ability to discriminate slow-proliferating tumors from aggressive, rapidly-proliferating tumors. Further, it has been proposed as an independent prognostic factor for the prediction of either overall survival or...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Review of recent advances in medical treatment for neuroendocrine neoplasms: somatostatin analogs and chemotherapy

    Francesca Spada , Monica Valente
    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumours often producing high levels of hormones and causing symptoms. There are a number of different types of NENs. They usually arise as advanced and low/intermediate grade only in a minority of cases, as high grade. Treatment depends on which type and may include surgery, interventional radiology, and systemic treatment, including chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs, interferon α2b, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and only for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, molecular targeted agents, including everolimus and...
    Published on: 31 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Merkel cell carcinoma responsive to Etoposide: a case report and brief literature review

    Chiara Ancona , Andrea Caff , Giovanni Manfredi Assanto , Stefano Cordio
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), first described in 1972, is an aggressive primary cutaneous carcinoma able to incorporate both epithelial and neuroendocrine features. MCC mainly appears in individuals in their eighth decade and it is related to a high mortality rate. The etiology of this rare disease is not well-understood but ultraviolet radiation exposure, immune suppression, and aging have a consistent role in its pathogenesis. Usually, clinical lesions appear as asymptomatic coloured dermal nodules. The tumour can involve lymph nodes but further evaluation with imaging is recommended. The...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Controversies in the treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors

    Maria Rinzivillo , Francesco Panzuto , Gianfranco Delle Fave
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; the gap between these rates is due to the relatively long survival time of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Recently, more therapeutic options have become available, but criteria for defining timing, priority and sequence of different therapeutic options are still debated. This review offers an overview of pancreatic and small bowel NETs, critically underlining the issues that still...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Management of hepatic metastases of well/moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract

    Anna La Salvia , Stefano Partelli , Marco Tampellini , Domenico Tamburrino , Massimo Falconi , Giorgio V. Scagliotti , Maria Pia Brizzi
    In neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), liver metastases (LM) represent the most crucial prognostic factor, irrespective of the primary tumor site. At diagnosis, about 65-95% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show hepatic metastasis. Management strategies of LM are heterogeneous and range from systemic therapy to liver-directed procedures. The type of systemic therapy used is dependent on the grade and proliferation of the tumor and includes somatostatin analogues, interferon, m-Tor and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Angiographic liver-directed techniques,...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: current therapies, notch signaling, and cancer stem cells

    Judy S. Crabtree , Lucio Miele
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies all derived from neuroendocrine cell lineage, affecting many different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the endocrine pancreas, the thyroid, the skin and the respiratory tract. These tumors as a group are very heterogeneous, with varying characteristics attributed to each tissue of origin and tumor subtype. The pathogenesis of the different subtypes of NETs is not fully understood, but recent studies suggest the Notch signaling pathway may be dysregulated in these tumors either by under or...
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
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  • Topic: Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Neuroendocrine tumors: a multidisciplinary approach for a complex disease

    Rossana Berardi
    Published on: 17 Aug 2016
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  • Original Article

    Oxidative stress and breast cancer biomarkers: the case of the cytochrome P450 2E1

    Subir Singh , Ramkumar Rajendran , Kengo Kuroda , Emiko Isogai , Marija Krstic-Demonacos , Constantinos Demonacos
    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the cytochrome P450 2E1, which is the most efficient CYP450 family member in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), on cellular energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and therefore the effects of CYP2E1 on breast carcinogenesis. Methods: The estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and the triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were used as experimental system to estimate ROS generation in these cells overexpressing CYP2E1 and treated with the glycolytic inhibitors 3-bromopyruvate or 2-deoxyglucose in the presence or absence of...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
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  • Original Article

    Evaluation of anti-metastatic effect of chitosan nanoparticles on esophageal cancer-associated fibroblasts

    Pravin D. Potdar , Aashutosh U. Shetti
    Aim: Esophageal cancer is one of the major types of cancers, causing death of approximately 5% of all cancer deaths. This is due, in large part, to both relatively ineffectual and unavailable treatment. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy against esophageal cancer, it is important to target metastatic genes. In the present study, we have used a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell line derived from culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a metastatic esophageal cancer patient to see whether chitosan nanoparticles (Ch-Np) treatment can modulate the metastatic...
    Published on: 29 Jul 2016
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  • Case Report

    Malignant eccrine acrospiroma with nodal and bone metastasis

    Burhan Wani , Shiekh Aejaz Aziz , Mohmad Hussain Mir , Gull Mohammad Bhat , Abdul Rashid Lone
    Acrospiromas are cutaneous tumors of sweat duct differentiation. Although various eccrine sweat gland tumours including benign acrospiroma are widely reviewed, malignant acrospiroma is rarely reported. Clinically, they resemble other cutaneous lesions and the primary treatment is wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy requires further investigation.
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
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  • Case Report

    EGFR mutation--a commonly neglected mutation in squamous cell lung carcinoma

    Rajeev Saini , Ullas Batra , Akhil Jain , Chaturbhuj Agrawal
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Advances in molecular biology have unveiled various targetable mutations with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) being most common. EGFR testing is recommended for all locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma lungs but recommendation in squamous histology is uncertain. However, just on the basis of histology, EGFR testing should not be withheld in patients diagnosed as squamous cell cancer on small biopsy, in females, never smokers and Asians. We report two cases with squamous cell lung cancer diagnosed on small...
    Published on: 20 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Curcumin sensitizes quiescent leukemic cells to antimitotic drug 5-fluorouracil by inducing proliferative responses in them

    Anagha Gardane , Mariyah Poonawala , Anuradha Vaidya
    Long-term quiescence or dormancy is a fundamental feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are genetically identical to the malignant clone but constitute the only cells with tumor propagation potential within the overall tumor population. These quiescent cells show significant resistance to radiation and antiproliferative chemotherapy due to distinctive properties that seem to be related to their stem cell-like character. Hence, successful anticancer therapy must consist of approaches that can target not only the differentiated cancer cells, but also the CSCs. Using serum-starved KG1a cell...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    The quintessential quiescence of cancer stem cells: a struggle towards better treatment

    Anuradha Vaidya
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells

    Yu Jeong Kim , Elizabeth L. Siegler , Natnaree Siriwon , Pin Wang
    The therapeutic limitations of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs present a challenge for cancer therapy; these shortcomings are largely attributed to the ability of cancer cells to repopulate and metastasize after initial therapies. Compelling evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) have a crucial impact in current shortcomings of cancer therapy because they are largely responsible for tumor initiation, relapse, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the properties and mechanisms underlying CSC resistance to treatments is necessary to improve patient...
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Topic: Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment

    Introduction to the Special Issue “Cancer Stem Cells: Impact on Treatment”

    Ira-Ida Skvortsova
    Published on: 8 Jul 2016
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  • Review

    Changing paradigm in treatment of lung cancer

    Sundaram Viswanath , Abhishek Pathak , Amul Kapoor , Anvesh Rathore , Bhupendra Nath Kapur
    Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer. It accounts for 13% of all new cancer cases and 19% of cancer-related deaths. In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9% of all new cancer cases and 9.3% of all cancer cases. There has also been a dramatic rise worldwide in both the absolute and relative frequencies of lung cancer occurrence. In 1953 it became the most common cause of cancer mortality in men. By 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women, causing almost twice as many deaths as breast cancer. The demographic profile of lung cancer has changed...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Case Report

    Carcinoma cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases

    Anuradha Kapali , Atmakuri Sateesh Kumar , Mukunda Malathi , S. D. Shamsundar
    Skeletal metastasis in carcinoma cervix occurs in about 0.8-23% of cases. These lesions are usually radiographically lytic. Very few cases of metastases to the skull have been identified, about 5 cases to the best of our knowledge. We present a case of adenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix with fat attenuating skull metastases in a 38-year-old lady that is not reported till date. The lesion was lytic, expansile and with negative attenuation of -15 to -30 Hounsfield units corresponding to fat.Metastases must be included in the differentials of scalp lesions. A history of recent onset of...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Review

    The role of human papillomaviruses in cancer progression

    Pinar Tulay , Nedime Serakinci
    The importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its role in the progress of cancer have been widely evaluated. The understanding of HPV association with certain cancers, such as cervical cancer, is very well established. A big step forward in the prevention of HPV associated cancers with the use of early detection by screening strategies has also been taken. In the last decade, development of HPV vaccination has reduced the number of cases in HPV infections and infection induced cancers. In this report, we review the HPV pathogenesis and highlight the mechanism of HPV involvement...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Case Report

    An unusual case of encapsulated papillary carcinoma of breast

    Kriti Chauhan , Monika Garg
    Intracystic (encapsulated) papillary carcinoma of breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. It is usually a low-grade tumor showing estrogen, progesterone positivity. The authors report an unusual case of intracystic papillary carcinoma showing high nuclear grade, brisk mitosis, and necrosis with triple negativity for estrogen, progesterone, and Her-2/neu receptors, as well as negative axillary lymph nodes. Such cases need to be reported to increase awareness so that they will be managed conservatively, avoiding any overtreatment despite being high grade and triple negative.
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Review

    Muscarinic receptor signaling and colon cancer progression

    Guofeng Xie , Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Due to the lack of effective treatments, advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Emerging evidence supports the observation that muscarinic receptor (MR) signaling plays a critical role in growth and progression of CRC. MR activation by acetylcholine and bile acids results in transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) and post-EGFR signal transduction that enhances cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, the authors review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MR-mediated CRC...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Case Report

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, who received azacitidine

    Ourania Nicolatou-Galitis , Dimitra Galiti , Maria Moschogianni , Sotirios Sachanas , Beatrice J. Edwards , Cesar A. Migliorati , Gerassimos Pangalis
    The first case of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) related to azacitidine therapy was reported. A 64-year-old male with acute myeloid leukemia, who received 5-azacitidine, presented with pain and purulence of the right second premolar. An unsuccessful endodontic therapy resulted in dental extraction 6 months later. The post-extraction non-healing socket was managed with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements without response. ONJ stage 2 was diagnosed 12 months after the initial symptoms of pain and purulence and was managed conservatively. Currently the patient is still receiving...
    Published on: 15 Jun 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Gemcitabine followed by radiotherapy in treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas

    Maha El-Naggar , Mervat Omar , Ahmed Elgeriany , Godefridus J. Peters , Amina Mostafa , Samir Shehata
    Aim: High-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor median overall survival (OS). The standard treatment after surgery is temozolomide and radiotherapy (RTH). Patients with unmethylated methylguanine-methyltransferase promoter (MGMT) have no or little benefit from temozolomide and are eligible for alternative therapies. Gemcitabine is a good radiosensitizer. We aimed to evaluate the combination of gemcitabine with RTH in newly diagnosed GBM. Methods: The study was a prospective phase II study. Eligible patients were required to have histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma or GBM....
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Targeting cerebrospinal fluid for discovery of brain cancer biomarkers

    Tarek Shalaby , Federica Achini , Michael A. Grotzer
    Central nervous system (CNS) cancer is a devastating illness with unmet therapeutic needs. Establishing biomarkers that have the potential to guide accurate CNS cancer diagnosis or are helpful in predicting disease progression or therapy response is of great interest. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been extensively targeted for the detection of molecules that might be useful markers for cancer detection. However, so far very few of such markers have found a standardized routine clinical application. This review examines the current scientific knowledge about the biochemical elements in the...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Interdisciplinary management of central nervous system metastasis and neoplastic meningitis: recent developments and future perspectives

    Ghazaleh Tabatabai , Marilin Koch , Cristiana Roggia , Juliane Ebert , Claus Garbe , Friedegund Meier , Sara Brucker , Eva Maria Grischke , Diethelm Wallwiener , Robert Möhle , Lothar Kanz , Walter Erich Auletzky , Ulrike Ernemann , Christian LaFougere , Konstantin Nikolaou , Bernd Pichler , Jens Schittenhelm , Manuela Neumann , Falko Fend , Stefan Czemmel , Sven Nahnsen , Frank Paulsen , Daniel Zips , Maike van Lessen , Hans-Otto Karnath , Ulf Ziemann , Hans-Georg Rammensee , Constantin Roder , Marco Skardelly , Jürgen Bernd Honegger , Marcos Tatagiba
    The incidence of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS) is rising. According to current estimates, up to a third of adult cancer patients will suffer from CNS metastasis. Clinical evidence-based data from prospective randomized trials are rare, however, because CNS metastasis patients were often excluded from clinical trial participation. The management of CNS metastasis patients is therefore rather ill-defined and an interdisciplinary challenge. Recent basic and translational science data have begun contributing to a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Dissecting brain tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and ex vivo

    Michael A. Grotzer , Anuja Neve , Martin Baumgartner
    Local infiltration and distal dissemination of tumor cells hamper efficacy of current treatments against central nervous system (CNS) tumors and greatly influence mortality and therapy-induced long-term morbidity in survivors. A number of in vitro and ex vivo assay systems have been established to better understand the infiltration and metastatic processes, to search for molecules that specifically block tumor cell infiltration and metastatic dissemination and to pre-clinically evaluate their efficaciousness. These systems allow analytical testing of tumor cell viability and motile and...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Introduction to this special issue on brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Michael A. Grotzer
    It is my privilege to introduce the readers to this special issue entitled “Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations”. As cancer is a global epidemic which knows no borders, efforts to better understand biology and to control it should know no borders either. This issue contains a mixture of clinical and preclinical scholarly articles that have been written by scientists from America, Europe, and the Middle East. I hope that the fresh insights represented here will be appreciated by neuro-oncologists and brain cancer researchers across the...
    Published on: 18 May 2016
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  • Original Article

    The association of the uterine motion with bladder volume during radiotherapy in gynecological malignancies

    Bhandari Virendra , Mutneja Abhinav , Gurjar Omprakash , Saadvik Raghuram , Bagdare Priyusha , Gupta Krishnlal , Singh Kanchan
    Aim: This study was performed to assess the extent of interfraction uterine motion during radiotherapy for cervical cancer and uterine body carcinoma while maintaining a strict bladder filling protocol. Methods: Twenty-four patients with cervical cancer or uterine body carcinoma who were treated on a linear accelerator, were recruited. During the course of external beam radiotherapy, cone beam computed tomographic scans were taken, once at the start of treatment and then weekly until the completion of the radiotherapy course. Patients were instructed to maintain a strict bladder filling...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016
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  • Case Report

    Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord: a case report

    Ashutosh Das Sharma , Jyoti Poddar , Ubrangala Suryanarayan Kunikullaya , Jay Prakash Neema
    Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is rare, and the events involving the spinal cord are even more infrequent. A 30-year-old male presented with a mass lesion of the spinal cord. After radiological workup, the mass was resected in December 2012. The histopathological examination report and immunohistochemistry suggested malignant melanoma. PET-CT scan, brain MRI, and funduscopic examination did not reveal malignant melanoma elsewhere in the body. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy until March 2013. Presently, the patient is asymptomatic with normal...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016
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  • Original Article

    The role of technetium Tc99m-tetrofosmin as head and neck tumor-seeking agent: a preliminary report

    Chrissa Sioka , Thomas Exarchopoulos , Vlasis Skloupiotis , Vaios Papathanassiou , Vasileios Ragos , Maria Argyropoulou , Anna Gousia , Periklis Tsekeris , Georgios Exarchakos , Dimitrios Assimakopoulos , Andreas Fotopoulos
    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of technetium Tc99m-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) in primary cancers of the head and neck. Methods: Single photon emission computer tomography with planar imaging of the neck for primary site evaluation and whole body scanning for assessment of metastases in 12 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer. Tumor-to-background index (T/Bg) was derived in patients with positive findings (tumor or lymph nodes). Results: The tomographic images showed increased tracer uptake in pathological sites (primary tumor or lymph node) in 9 patients (overall...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2016
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  • Case Report

    Metachronous bladder metastasis from papillary renal cell carcinoma

    Arun Ramdas Menon , Nivedita Suresh , Prajwal Ravinder , Rajeev Thekke Puthalath
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its metastatic potential and predilection for unusual sites of metastasis. Metastasis to the bladder is rare and has been reported predominantly from clear cell RCC. We report a case of a 72-year-old male presenting with a bladder tumor which on histopathological evaluation was found to be a metastasis from papillary RCC, 7 years after radical nephrectomy. This case highlights the need to maintain a high index of suspicion to diagnose bladder metastasis in a patient with a history of RCC presenting with a bladder lesion.
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine tumor of mandible

    Jitender Batra , Chinmay D. Vakade , Sonal Grover , Gyanander Attresh
    Neuroendocrine tumors of the oral cavity and jaws are exceedingly rare. They include paragangliomas, a melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infants, small cell carcinomas, and Merckel cell carcinomas. Most have been non-functional in nature. Breast, lung, liver, colon, and prostate are the most common reported primary malignancies which can metastasize to the oral cavity. In most cases, oral metastases involve maxilla and mandible rather than soft tissues. The premolar-molar region is the most common localization. The purpose of this article is to describe a rare case of a high grade...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic breast cancer: an unusual cause of diplopia

    Nasser Mohammed Amer , Gareth Bashir , Arikoge Ogedegbe , Ibtisam Saeed
    While secondary solid cancer into the eye orbit is rare, it is the most common site for primary metastasis in female breast cancer. We report a case of a sixty-six years old woman presenting to her optician with complaints of double vision. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an invasive lesion in the superior and medial rectus muscles of the right orbit, biopsy of which confirmed this as an infiltrating breast carcinoma. Investigation of the primary lesion showed an advanced invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. She was then treated with radiotherapy to the orbit and a non...
    Published on: 28 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Tailored nanocarriers and bioconjugates for combating glioblastoma and other brain tumors

    Fatema ELAmrawy , Amr A. Othman , Chris Adkins , Aliaa Helmy , Mohamed I. Nounou
    Worldwide, the incidence of primary brain tumors is on the rise. Unfortunately, noninvasive drug therapy is hampered by poor access of most drugs to the brain due to the insurmountable blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanotechnology holds great promise for noninvasive therapy of severe brain diseases. Furthermore, recent bioconjugation strategies have enabled the invasion of the BBB via tailored-designed bioconjugates either with targeting moieties or alterations in the physicochemical and/or the pharmacokinetic parameters of central nervous system (CNS) active pharmaceutical ingredients....
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Effects of Gas1 on gliomas: a review on current preclinical studies

    Jose Segovia , Elizabeth Bautista , Manuel Lara-Lozano
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor. Its prognosis remains very poor, despite the use of combined treatments such as surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy. The major limitations for the treatment of GBM are its high invasiveness, tumor recurrence and resistance to treatments. Therefore, gene therapy appears as a relevant strategy for its treatment. Thus, we have investigated the use of growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) for the treatment of GBM. Gas1 is a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits glioma growth by inducing arrest and apoptosis of tumor...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Brain infiltration by cancer cells: different roads to the same target?

    Mayra Paolillo , Sergio Schinelli
    Brain infiltration by cancer cells is a complex process in which metastatic cells detached from the primary tumor must firstly survive in the blood flow, cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and finally colonize a foreign microenvironment. The cells that successfully bypass the cellular barriers surrounding capillaries, proliferate to form micrometastasis and trigger the angiogenetic process. Different molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the metastatic behaviour of solid tumors that infiltrate brain tissue; in this review the most recent findings concerning mechanisms and genes...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    Brain tumor surgery: supplemental intra-operative imaging techniques and future challenges

    Telmo Augusto Barba Belsuzarri , Raphael Martinelli Anson Sangenis , João Flavio Mattos Araujo
    Modern brain tumor surgery stands in the pillar of maximum safe resection. Tumor borders are always challenging, especially infiltration zones in malignant brain tumors. Novel technologies are designed for a better delineation and to increase the extent of resection (EOR) in brain tumor surgery, such as: cortical and sub-cortical mapping strategies with somatosensory-evoked potentials, awake stimulation mapping and cortical/sub-cortical stimulation for motor pathways, important for resection in eloquent areas; intra-operative imaging as functional and intra-operative magnetic resonance...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Topic: Brain tumor cell invasion and metastasis: anatomical, biological and clinical considerations

    The role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in brain tumor metastasis

    Silvia Crespo , Marcus Kind , Alexandre Arcaro
    The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathway is involved in a variety of cellular functions and often contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression. It has been recognized that this pathway is frequently activated in the most common central nervous system cancers of adults and children, malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas (MB). In these tumors, the PAM network controls key functions necessary for cell invasion and metastasis, such as cell motility. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of PAM signaling in cell invasion and metastasis in gliomas and MB. Current approaches to...
    Published on: 11 Mar 2016
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  • Case Report

    Unusual skeletal muscle metastasis from carcinoma cervix

    Mehlam Kausar , Desh Deepak Ladia , Abhinav Mutneja , Virendra Bhandari
    Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy in Indian women. It usually spreads locally or via regional lymphatics to retroperitoneal lymph nodes and hematogenous spread is rare. The occurrence of skeletal muscle metastases is a very rare event and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The authors present an unusual case of cervical carcinoma in a patient that presented with skeletal muscle metastasis 1 year after the treatment
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Case Report

    The therapeutic potential of duloxetine in prostate cancer-related fatigue

    Rita De Sanctis , Alessandro Viganò
    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common polysymptomatic syndrome with no standard therapy. The authors present the case of a prostate cancer patient in whom, during hormone therapy, disabling CRF and urinary incontinence occurred. CRF was assessed according to the brief fatigue inventory (BFI). The patient received duloxetine, 60 mg daily, due to its impact on both CRF and incontinence. After 2 months, the BFI score decreased (from 9 to 2) and urinary incontinence resolved. After duloxetine discontinuation, the patient maintained a low BFI score. The authors conclude that, as a...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Original Article

    Prognostic factors and efficacy of GDP-R therapy in refractory/relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphomas not eligible for high-dose therapy

    Francesco Ghio , Giulia Cervetti , Nadia Cecconi , Matteo Pelosini , Sara Galimberti , Riccardo Morganti , Paola Ferrari , Andrea Nicolini , Mario Petrini
    Aim: The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the overall survival (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) in a cohort of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) not eligible for high-dose therapy (HDT) treated with gemcitabine in association with dexamethasone, cisplatin and rituximab (GDP-R) protocol. The secondary aim was to identify the prognostic factors impacting OS and TTF. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCLs treated with GDP-R. Results: Overall response rate (ORR) was 48.8%; complete response 15/45...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Review

    What we have learned from urinary bladder cancer models

    Carina Bernardo , Céu Costa , Carlos Palmeira , Rosário Pinto-Leite , Paula Oliveira , Rui Freitas , Francisco Amado , Lúcio L. Santos
    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is a heterogeneous disease with highly variable clinical outcomes and responses to chemotherapy. Despite some advances in the molecular understanding of UBC, this knowledge still has not been translated to the clinic in terms of improvements in the prognosis and treatment of patients. Suitable urinary bladder tumor models representative of the human disease in terms of histology and behavior are needed to study factors involved in tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. Further, accurate model systems would facilitate identification of new therapeutic...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Review

    Molecular and cellular aspects of extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia

    Javad Mohammadiasl , Abbas Khosravi , Mohammad Shahjahani , Shirin Azizidoost , Najmaldin Saki
    The myeloid extramedullary tumor is a solid tumor formed by infiltration of immature myeloid cells in various tissues of the body. This tumor is also identified as chloroma or myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS is a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurring at presentation or during treatment or relapse. MS is associated with multiple chromosomal abnormalities and molecular mutations since patients with these disorders bear a high potential for MS manifestation. There is a high incidence of extramedullary infiltration (EMI) in AML. AML patients with EMI have a worse prognosis than patients...
    Published on: 29 Feb 2016
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  • Review

    The farnesoid X receptor and colon cancer

    Guofeng Xie , Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death, primarily because of limited therapeutic options for those with advanced disease. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Besides its prominent role in bile acid synthesis, and lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, recent data indicate that FXR also plays a key role in regulating intestinal cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Here, we review the role of FXR as a tumor suppressor in CRC, with particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Review

    Roles of dysregulated Notch pathway and small DNA tumor viruses in cancer initiation and progression

    Anthony G. Clementz , Paola Rizzo , Fernanda Martini , Mauro Tognon
    Notch pathway is a major determinant of cell fate, and research within the last 30 years has shown dysfunctions within this pathway in the majority of solid tumors and leukemias. The molecular mechanisms causing aberrant expression of Notch in cancer are still partially known. Mesotheliomas, breast, and cervical cancers are among the cancer types for which the dysregulation of Notch has been reported together with the association of simian virus 40 (SV40) or human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. In mesotheliomas and cervical cancer, there is clear evidence that these viruses cause and...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Review

    Long non-coding RNAs as key regulators of cancer metastasis

    Pratirodh Koirala , De-Hong Zou , Yin-Yuan Mo
    The recent advances in functional genomics have discovered that a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed from the human genome. Increasing evidence further indicates that lncRNAs are important for gene expression during cell differentiation and development through various mechanisms such as nuclear organization, post-transcription regulation, alternative splicing, and epigenetic regulation. Thus, aberrant expression of lncRNAs can cause abnormality in those cellular functions and lead to various pathological conditions. One of such fatal consequences is...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Original Article

    Withaferin A targeting both cancer stem cells and metastatic cancer stem cells in the UP-LN1 carcinoma cell model

    Lai-Lei Ting , Andy Shau-Bin Chou , Chin-Hsuan Hsieh , Shih-Chieh Hsiung , See-Tong Pang , Shuen-Kuei Liao
    Aim: As our understanding of cancer stem cell (CSC) biology improves, search for inhibitory agents of CSCs and metastatic CSCs (mCSCs) positive for CXCR4 is warranted. Withaferin A (WA), a withanolide extracted from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects through multiple mechanisms. Whether WA could selectively target CSCs, mCSCs, or non-CSCs of a gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoma tumor remains unclear. Methods: Side-population (SP) analysis, flow cytometric phenotyping and sorting, non-invasive imaging in conjunction with xenotransplantation, and...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Case Report

    Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as rapidly growing sternal mass: an unusual presentation

    Rahul S. Kulkarni , Asha S. Anand , Apurva A. Patel , Sandip A. Shah
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. The most frequent sites of metastases are lungs, regional lymph nodes, adrenals and bones. However, an isolated sternal metastasis from HCC as an initial presentation has been rarely reported. A 45-year-old man presented with a progressively increasing mass over the anterior chest wall. On investigations, it was found to be arising from the sternum. Histopathology was suggestive of metastatic HCC, later confirmed by the presence of a 9 cm × 7 cm mass in the liver on abdominal computed tomography scan and a...
    Published on: 15 Jan 2016
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastroenterological cancer

    Hirohisa Okabe , Kosuke Mima , Seiya Saito , Hiromitsu Hayashi , Katsunori Imai , Hidetoshi Nitta , Daisuke Hashimoto , Akira Chikamoto , Takatoshi Ishiko , Toru Beppu , Hideo Baba
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was first reported as an essential process in embryonic cells and later showed that cancer cells, regardless of the context, exhibited a similar phenomenon that was crucial for tumor progression. Epithelial cells lose their adhesive characteristic capacity which is necessary for their functions but gain a mesenchymal phenotype. This change from epithelial to the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells makes it difficult to understand the mechanism underlying cancer biology and tumor progression. A number of transcription factors involved in tumor cell...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Cancer metabolism in gastrointestinal cancer

    Hiroshi Sawayama , Nobutomo Miyanari , Hideo Baba
    Cancer cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, anaerobic glycolysis and upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recent genetic and metabolic analyses have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of genes that are involved in the alteration of cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis. Hypoxic induced factor 1 regulates the reciprocal relationship between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and p53 also modulates the balance between the glycolytic pathway and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria function in cancer differs from that in...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Trends in clinical use of targeted therapy for gastrointestinal cancers

    Kojiro Eto , Masayuki Watanabe
    Targeted drugs therapies that block the molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of gastro-intestinal (GI) cancers have recently gained considerable attention. In addition to agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor, the multi-kinase inhibitor, and regorafenib have also become available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Currently, trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), in combination with cytotoxic drugs is considered as the standard treatment for...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Molecular insights into colorectal cancer stem cell regulation by environmental factors

    Daisuke Izumi , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Hideo Baba
    Colorectal cancer remains a significant cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, mainly because of tumor relapse and metastases. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the main cause of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, as well as being responsible for distant metastases. Although CSCs themselves possess innate abilities for self-renewal and differentiation, the environment surrounding CSCs provides oxygen, nutrients and secreted factors, and also supports angiogenesis, thus it's responsible for maintaining their CSC properties. Furthermore, extensive investigations have...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    MicroRNAs in gastrointestinal cancer: a novel biomarker and its clinical application

    Yukiharu Hiyoshi , Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers remain one of the most common malignancies and are the major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Significant advancements have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis and pathology of GI cancers, but high mortality rates, an unfavorable prognosis, and lack of clinical predictive biomarkers provide an impetus to investigate novel diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for GI cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19-24 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, thus playing an...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Chronic inflammation and gastrointestinal cancer

    Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Chronic inflammation has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been studied extensively. Chronic inflammation is able to trigger cellular events to promote malignant transformation of normal epithelial cells in the GI tract to cancer. Host inflammation responses in carcinogenesis are through multiple mechanisms such as reactive oxygen and nitration species from mononuclear phagocytes and leukocytes, immune response and pro-infl ammatory cytokines. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in gastrointestinal cancer

    Masaaki Iwatsuki , Junji Kurashige , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Keisuke Kosumi , Yoshifumi Baba , Yasuo Sakamoto , Yuji Miyamoto , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are originated from the primary tumor lesion into the blood stream. CTCs could lead to recurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, even after a curative resection and colonizing in the distant organs to facilitate tumor distant metastasis; however, it has been challenging in clinic to detect CTCs for a long time, such as detection methodology or molecular markers for identification of CTCs. This review discussed the recent technical advances and biomarkers in the detection of CTCs and the molecular mechanism of CTC in cancer progression and metastasis....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Overview of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma: recent findings by next generation sequencing

    Yu Imamura , Ryuma Tokunaga , Kenichi Nakamura , Hideo Baba , Masayuki Watanabe
    Esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma is commonly treated as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and has dramatically increased in Western countries for several decades. The similar trend has been observed in Asian countries (not in China). Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a widely accepted precursor of EAC. Recent advances of next-generation sequencing could provide researchers with a better understanding of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the carcinogenesis of EAC. In this review, we have summarized the recently reported major genetic and epigenetic alterations in both BE and EAC. Sonic...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Epigenetic changes in gastrointestinal cancers

    Hironobu Shigaki , Yoshifumi Baba , Kazuto Harada , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifi cation, loss of genome imprinting, chromatin remodeling and non-coding RNAs, are associated with human carcinogenesis. Among them, DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process to modulate gene expression. In cancer cells, altered DNA methylation includes hypermethylation of site-specific CpG island promoter and global DNA hypo-methylation. Detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation has been applied to the clinic to stratify risk in cancer development, detect early cancer and predict clinical outcomes....
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Topic: Reviews of Recent Advances in Research and Treatment for Gastroenterological Malignancies

    Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 3 of Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Review

    Growth factor receptors: promising drug targets in cancer

    Snigdha Tiash , Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury
    Genetic, epigenetic and somatic changes deregulate the expression of growth factor receptors (GFRs), leading to cancer initiation and progression. Tumor cell growth and survival are orchestrated by clonal expansion and evasion of apoptotic signals in cancer cells. The growth of cells is further supported by angiogenesis and metastasis to distant organs. High expression of GFRs also contributes to the development of resistance. Therefore, therapeutics to target GFRs is a potentially attractive molecular approach to treat cancer more effectively. In this review, we have discussed the...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Original Article

    Ten years of lung cancer in a single center: gender, histology, stage and survival

    Regina Gironés , Pedro López , Rebeca Chulvi , Mamen Cañabate , Torregrosa M. Dolores
    Aim: The aim was to describe, in a prospective manner, the clinical, histopathological and epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer patients who attended as outpatients at the Lluís Alcanyís, Xàtiva Medical Oncology Hospital, València, Spain from January 2004 to July 2014. We also analyzed survival and compared our data with that reported in the literature. Methods: Clinical and demographic characteristics were analyzed for the entire series and trends were compared by year of diagnosis. Changes in epidemiology were examined and compared. Results: There were 701 patients (91.4% were...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Case Report

    Is pregnancy wise after 12-year chemotherapy of chronic myeloid leukemia woman?

    Umesh Das , Gurulingaiah Venkata Giri , Kuntejowdahalli Lakshmaiah , Suresh Tagarapura , Lokanatha Dasappa , Govind Babu , Linu Abraham Jacob , Suresh Babu
    Diagnosis of leukemia during pregnancy is a dramatic event that poses challenges to the pregnant woman, the family, and physicians. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) comprises up to 10% of pregnancy-associated leukemia. There is no specific guideline for CML management in pregnant women. This study reported a case of successful pregnancy after 12 years of chemotherapy including tyrosine kinase inhibitor for CML. Pregnancy after 12 years of continuous chemotherapy is rare, which also led a challenge for medical oncologists and patient as well. This study described the assessment of the risk...
    Published on: 15 Oct 2015
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  • Original Article

    Withania somnifera extract reduces the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and inhibits cytokines associated with metastasis

    Kamel F. Khazal , Donald L. Hill
    Aim: The aim was to examine the anti-proliferative effect of a Withania somnifera (WS) root extract in cell cultures and nude mouse xenografts of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Methods: WS root extract was used to treat tumor cells at concentrations up to 100 μg and for nude mouse experiments, the mice received daily WS at 300 mg/kg by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Results: The WS extract reduced viability of MDA-MB-231 cells by 75% and 88% after exposure of the cells to 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively, compared to vehicle-treated controls. WS extract caused a dose-dependent increase in the...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: clinical criteria for treatment strategy

    Agnese Savini , Rossana Berardi , Paola Mazzanti , Miriam Caramanti , Matteo Santoni , Mariagrazia De Lisa , Francesca Morgese , Silvia Rinaldi , Mariangela Torniai , Ilaria Fiordoliva , Azzurra Onofri , Stefano Cascinu
    Aim: Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of human cancer deaths worldwide, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most frequent histologic subtypes. The aim of our study was to analyze clinical factors potentially affecting the overall outcome of advanced lung SCC patients. Methods: A series of 72 consecutive patients with advanced SCC undergoing chemotherapy at our institution between January 2007 and July 2013 were eligible for our analysis. Results: By univariate analysis, a better overall survival (OS) was related to response to fi rst-line chemotherapy: median OS were...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Prognostic significance of transcription factors FOXA1 and GATA-3 in ductal carcinoma in situ in terms of recurrence and estrogen receptor status

    Mamatha Chivukula , Jennifer Picarsic , Gautam Bulusu , Adam Brufsky , Gretchen Ahrendt , Gloria Carter
    Aim: The aim was to analyze the expression of novel biological transcription markers, forkhead-box A1 (FOXA1), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), and established markers such as Ki-67 (MIB-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in estrogen receptor (ER(+)) and ER(-) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients with/without recurrence. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-one cases of DCIS were retrieved from our pathology database, with complete data available for 219 cases. The follow-up period is from 1988 to 2009. Recurrence is defined in terms of DCIS or invasive carcinoma (IC). No...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Spinal intradural mature teratoma in an elderly patient

    Atef Ben Nsir , Karim Ben Hammouda , Imed Ben Said , Alia Zhani Kassar , Nidhameddine Kchir , Hafedh Jemel
    Spinal intradural mature teratomas are rarely encountered in adults. In this report, one of the oldest patients ever reported to harbor an intradural mature teratoma of the conus medullaris is presented, and the relevant literature concerning the teratoma’s origin, clinical presentation, radiological features, and treatment modalities is reviewed. A previously healthy 70-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of left sciatica. Her neurological examination was normal and the magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine showed an intradural, partially cystic mass extending...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Urothelial bladder cancer progression: lessons learned from the bench

    Julieta P. Afonso , Rui Freitas , Francisco Lobo , António Morais , Jorge Oliveira , Teresina Amaro , Rui M. Reis , Fátima M. Baltazar , Adhemar Longatto-Filho , Lúcio L. Santos
    Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is an intricate malignancy with a variable natural history and clinical behavior. Despite developments in diagnosis/prognosis refi nement and treatment modalities, the recurrence rate is high, and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive UBC commonly leads to metastasis. Moreover, patients with muscle-invasive or extra-vesical disease often fail the standard chemotherapy treatment, and overall survival rates are poor. Thus, UBC remains a challenge in the oncology fi eld, representing an ideal candidate for research on biomarkers that could identify...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Non-anthracycline chemotherapy associated with a poor outcome in elderly Egyptian patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Ahmed A. Zeeneldin , Yasser A. Sallam , Ayman A. Gaber , Amgad A. Shaheen
    Aim: Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) is the standard treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCNHL). Nevertheless, anthracyclines are contraindicated for some patients, e.g. cardiac dysfunction, severe hepatic dysfunction, jaundice. Thus, this study assessed the effectiveness of non-anthracycline chemotherapy regimen cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) in elderly DLBCNHL patients vs. the standard CHOP. Methods: This retrospective study included 418 DLBCNHL patients diagnosed between 2003 and...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Orbital metastasis from anorectal carcinoma

    Pavan Kumar Lachi , Megha S. Uppin , Monica Irukulla , Kotiyala V. Jaganadha Rao Naidu
    Pulmonary and liver metastases are common sites of distant metastasis from the rectal carcinoma. Metastases to the head and neck region are uncommon from carcinoma of the rectum, and orbital metastases are extremely rare. Here, we describe a 27-year-old female, who was diagnosed as a case of anorectal carcinoma in April 2010. She underwent abdominoperineal resection followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5 fl uorouracil and leucovorin on follow-up. In January 2012, she presented with gradually increasing swelling over the left temporal region and left sided...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Editorial

    Introduction to Volume 1 Issue 2 of Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment

    Lucio Miele
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Review

    Role of circulating tumor cells in future diagnosis and therapy of cancer

    Pravin D. Potdar , Navjeet Kaur Lotey
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have become a blistering topic of discussion for oncologists because of their tremendous potential in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Over the past few years, they have been doled with quite an amount of research in this area understanding that CTCs are shed from tumors and circulate in the bloodstream. This process can also occur at an early stage of cancer. The major limitation in isolation of CTCs is their availability in limited numbers. Hence, many techniques have been developed and are under continuous improvement to enhance their effi cacy of CTC...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Original Article

    Detection and quantification of extracellular microRNAs in medulloblastoma

    Tarek Shalaby , Giulio Fiaschetti , Sylvain Baulande , Nicolas U. Gerber , Martin Baumgartner , Michael A. Grotzer
    Aim: Medu lloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The crucial role of extracellular-microRNAs (ex-miRNAs) in cancer has been widely recognized; however, their role in MB remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate MB-driven ex-miRNAs. Methods: Microarray analysis was used to disclose the identity and quantity of key miRNAs excreted in culture-medium (CM) of 3 human MB cell lines and cere brospinal fl uid (CSF) of brain tumors (including MB) and leukemia patients. MiRNA expression was validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Metastatic inguinal lymph nodes with two different histological types in a case of carcinoma of unknown primary site

    Mukur Dipi Ray , Shivam Vatsal , Sunil Kumar
    Cancer of unknown primary site is a group of uncommon cancers where patients present with metastatic disease and the primary site is not identified, even after a complete workup to establish the diagnosis. Inguinal metastasis with unknown primary is even more uncommon, and histological type is the most important guiding factor to look for the primary. This report describes the rare situation of inguinal metastasis with an unknown primary site where a combination of squamous and transitional cell carcinoma was found on final histopathology. It highlights the importance of multimodality...
    Published on: 15 Jul 2015
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  • Case Report

    Metachronous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to bilateral testis

    Sameer Nain , Suman Kharkwal , Onkar Kaur
    Unusual site metastasis as a presenting complaint of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported previously in the literature. RCC is a tumor with notoriously unpredictable behavior. The authors report an unusual case of metachronous bilateral testicular metastasis in a patient who operated for RCC. The case highlights the unique behavior of RCC with an unusual site of metastasis. A 72-year-old patient presented with bilateral scrotal swelling of 1-month duration. There was a history of left radical nephrectomy for RCC 4 years prior. He underwent a bilateral high inguinal orchidectomy and...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Original Article

    Incidence of bone metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa

    Virendra Bhandari
    Aim: This retrospective study was performed to show the incidence of bone metastasis from carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to an increased incidence of tobacco use and poor oral hygiene. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is common and roughly 2.5% of all malignancies that present to our center. Moreover, most patients present at late stages (III/IV) and consequently, survival rates are low. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of such carcinomas is rarely reported worldwide but is more prominent in parts of India. Methods:...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Complete response with fotemustine and bevacizumab after early progression following radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment in patient with glioblastoma multiforme

    Ovidio Fernández Calvo , María Eva Pérez López , Jesús García Gómez
    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common type of primary central nervous system tumor and is noted for its short survival and poor response to chemotherapeutic agents. Unfortunately, the relapse rate is very high, and there is no reference drug for second-line treatment. In this study, a patient was treated with the Soffietti regimen. The induction phase was fotemustine 75 mg/m2 at day 1 and day 8 and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg at day 1 and day 15. The maintenance phase was fotemustine 75 mg/m2 and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for two cycles. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Review

    Patient-derived xenograft models for oncology drug discovery

    Gang Li
    The success of targeted therapies for cancer patients rests on three major components: the right target(s), the right drug and drug combination, and the right patient population. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of disease and in refi ning pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic agents, the attrition rates between target discovery and drug marketing approval have been high, especially in oncology. One of the main reasons underlying this undesirable statistics is believed to be the lack of predictive power of the model systems used in the preclinical...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Original Article

    Changes in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status between primary breast/gastric carcinomas and synchronous metastatic lymph nodes: how can we explain them?

    Antonio Ieni , Valeria Barresi , Giovanni Branca , Luana Licata , Rosario Alberto Caruso , Giovanni Tuccari
    Aim: Previous studies demonstrated discordant expression of human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 ( HER2) between primary cancer and their recurrence/metastasis. This study further evaluated HER2 status between primary gastric and breast invasive carcinomas and paired metastatic disease to lymph nodes. Methods: This study collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded representative tissue blocks from 62 gastric and 65 breast primary carcinomas as well as synchronous metastatic lymph nodes (male:female = 39:88; age ranged between 44 and 95 years with mean age of 69.32 years) for...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Malignant ascites with omental metastasis: a rare event in prostate cancer

    Rajeev Saini , Chandragouda Dodagoudar , Vineet Talwar , Sajjan Singh
    Prostate cancer is the most common type of male malignancy in the world and approximately 10-20% of prostate cancer shows a metastatic disease at initial diagnosis commonly to the bones, vertebrae, ribs, long bones, and skull. However, prostate cancer metastasis to the omentum with malignant ascites is extremely uncommon. In this study, we report such a case, which also highlights a repeatedly negative ascetic fl uid cytology even with multiple omental metastatic nodules. The purpose of this case report is to provide awareness to physicians for this rare occurrence.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Review

    Risk factors and molecular mechanisms of esophageal cancer: differences between the histologic subtypes

    Masayuki Watanabe
    The two major histologic subtypes of esophageal cancer have different risk factors as well as different molecular mechanisms. In this review, the differences in risk factors and genetic/epigenetic alterations between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) will be discussed. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are risk factors for ESCC, while gastroesophageal refl ux, cigarette smoking, and obesity are the main EAC risk factors. Commonly mutated genes of both subtypes are TP53 and PIK3CA. Recent genome-wide analysis revealed that the activation of...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Original Article

    Association between the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and prognosis

    Meraj Farbod , Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi , Hamid Harazi , Tahereh Nazari , Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha
    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the potential influences of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms on breast cancer risk, the distribution of CTLA-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (1661AG) in breast cancer patients and control subjects was investigated. Methods: In this case-control study, 100 patients with breast cancer as case group and 100 healthy participants as a control group were compared. Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Demographic characteristics of the study population, as well as tumor...
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Case Report

    Early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil presenting with multiple organ metastases including skin and brain after successful local treatment

    Susovan Banerjee , Dipankar Kundu , Mukti Mukherjee , Pradip Kumar Maiti
    Early stage carcinoma of the tonsil is curable, and the incidence of systemic metastasis is very low and central nervous system involvement is very rare. A patient diagnosed with early stage tonsillar carcinoma treated with chemoradiation was followed by brachytherapy boost. One and half years after completion of treatment, the patient presented with disseminated metastasis to the skin, lung, liver, bone, and brain. He had all favorable prognostic parameters except being a young adult.
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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  • Letter to Editor

    Cancer preventing spices

    Ishtiaque Alam , Hashmat Imam , Zarnigar Riaz
    Published on: 15 Apr 2015
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