• Original Article|Open Access

    New insights into the role of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in carcinogenesis: identification of complex single gene variance within tumors

    Bruce Gottlieb , Farbod Babrzadeh , Kathleen Klein Oros , Carlos Alvarado , Chunlin Wang , Baback Gharizadeh , Mark Basik , Celia M.T. Greenwood , Lenore K. Beitel , Mark Trifiro
    Aim: Present cancer hypotheses are almost all based on the concept that accumulation of specific driver gene mutations cause carcinogenesis. The discovery of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH), has resulted in this hypothesis being modified by assuming that most of these ITGH mutations are in passenger genes. In addition, accumulating ITGH data on driver gene mutations have revealed considerable genotype/phenotype disconnects. This study proposes to investigate this disconnect by examining the nature and degree of ITGH in breast tumors. Methods: ITGH was examined in tumors using next... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:37. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.26
    Published on: 19 Jul 2018  | Viewed:94  | Downloaded:4
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating microRNAs as a liquid biopsy: a next-generation clinical biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer

    Shuhei Komatsu , Jun Kiuchi , Taisuke Imamura , Daisuke Ichikawa , Eigo Otsuji
    Accumulating evidence has suggested the potential clinical utility of novel body fluid biomarkers, or “liquid biopsy”, using circulating tumor cells and cell-free nucleic acids from cancer patients. Noninvasive and reproducible, liquid biopsy could provide the basis for individualized therapeutic strategies by identifying genetic and epigenetic aberrations that are closely associated with cancer initiation and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They also play important roles in various physiological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:36. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.58
    Published on: 18 Jul 2018  | Viewed:66  | Downloaded:6
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  • Review|Open Access

    Current trends in gastric cancer treatment in Europe

    Satoshi Kamiya , Ioannis Rouvelas , Mats Lindblad , Magnus Nilsson
    Gastric cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths, despite the gradual decrease of its incidence in the West. Minimally invasive procedures, such as endoscopic resection and laparoscopic gastrectomy, have been successfully introduced in European high-volume centres, in the treatment of early gastric cancer. Regarding advanced, localized gastric cancer a number of prospective trials have been completed in search of better therapeutic options, aiming to optimize the efficacy vs. adverse effect ratio. From the results of these prospective randomized trials, the therapeutic... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:35. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.76
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:260  | Downloaded:25
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  • Systematic Review|Open Access

    Surgical treatment of stage IV gastric cancer: is it worthwhile?

    Ilaria Pergolini , Paolo Ciano , Gianluca Guercioni , Marco Catarci
    Aim: To analyze clinical features and survival outcomes of patients with surgically-treated stage IV gastric cancer, in order to evaluate the suitability of surgery in these patients. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase on October 9th, 2017. Survival outcomes data were collected. Results: The original search returned 2434 papers. Thirty-nine studies were included in the final review, of which 26 evaluated liver metastasis resection, four pulmonary metastasis resections and nine palliative gastrectomies. In total 933 patients underwent... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:33. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.84
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:249  | Downloaded:23
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of taxanes: a case report

    Nasser Mohammed Amer , Rabia Niaz
    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare complication of chemotherapy, however, few reports were published as a specific complication of taxanes. We are reporting this rare complication of a lady who was treated with taxanes as an adjuvant therapy for her breast cancer who was referred to us from the medical department and turned out to be necrotizing fasciitis in her right thigh. We are also presenting the literature review of this type of complication. Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:34. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.09
    Published on: 17 Jul 2018  | Viewed:134  | Downloaded:12
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells in gastric cancer

    Kenichi Nakamura , Masaaki Iwatsuki , Junji Kurashige , Takatsugu Ishimoto , Yoshifumi Baba , Yuji Miyamoto , Naoya Yoshida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a lot of attention as a novel biomarker for cancer research in past decades. CTCs infiltrate the bloodstream derived from the primary tumor, and are significantly involved in cancer metastasis and recurrence. Although clinical applications have been challenging owing to the difficulties of CTC identification, recent development of technology for specific enrichment and detection of CTCs contributes to diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, CTC analyses will shed new light on the biological mechanisms of cancer progression and metastasis. A number... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:32. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.78
    Published on: 5 Jul 2018  | Viewed:180  | Downloaded:109
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  • Review|Open Access

    Update on targeted therapy and immune therapy for gastric cancer, 2018

    Yuki Kiyozumi , Masaaki Iwatsuki , Kohei Yamashita , Yuki Koga , Naoya Yoshida , Hideo Baba
    Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the most common cancers and serious health problems worldwide. For unresectable or metastatic advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy treatment is first selected. Although chemotherapy has improved survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the prognosis of these patients remains poor. In recent years, some therapies targeting biological molecules have been reported to prolong the survival of patients with AGC. Since trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets HER2, was established as standard therapy for unresectable GC in a HER2-positive... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:31. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.77
    Published on: 28 Jun 2018  | Viewed:511  | Downloaded:135
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreatic cancer: treatment approaches and trends

    Nabyla Paixão Pereira , José Raimundo Corrêa
    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most challenging diseases due to its often late diagnose which results in limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. To date, the only curative treatment is complete tumor removal surgery but only a few patients are eligible to do it. The median survival period after surgery followed by chemotherapy adjuvant treatment is about 2 years. Since its approval by the FDA, Gemcitabine has become the first-line chemotherapy agent for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. The FOLFIRINOX regimen is also used as a treatment scheme for pancreatic cancer; however,... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:30. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.13
    Published on: 25 Jun 2018  | Viewed:297  | Downloaded:38
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Bioconjugate structures vs. composite nanoparticulate carriers: the battle for the future of smart, effective and safe cancer management

    Mohamed Ismail Nounou
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:29. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.18
    Published on: 21 Jun 2018  | Viewed:227  | Downloaded:33
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer: a new kid on the block

    Andrea Spallanzani , Fabio Gelsomino , Francesco Caputo , Chiara Santini , Kalliopi Andrikou , Giulia Orsi , Margherita Rimini , Stefania Pipitone , Laura Riggi , Camilla Bardasi , Massimiliano Salati , Stefano Cascinu
    In the last few years, the success of anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 drugs in solid cancers treatment and the advances in molecular biology have provided new potential treatment strategies for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, only patients with mismatch repair deficiency seem to benefit from immunotherapy and they represent a small subset of the metastatic population. New ongoing studies focus on converting an immune ignorant tumour into an inflamed one by combination therapies and on introducing an immunotherapeutic approach in earlier stages of disease (neoadjuvant and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:28. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.31
    Published on: 19 Jun 2018  | Viewed:751  | Downloaded:104
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  • Commentary|Open Access

    Cancer, circulating tumor cells, and metastasis: could protein-derived peptide fragments impede brain metastases?

    Gerald J. Mizejewski
    The majority of cancer deaths can be attributed to cancer cell metastases that migrate to distant target organs. Brain metastases constitute one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among cancer patients, occurring in about 40% of patients with metastatic disease. Thus, there exists an unmet need for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment directed against early stage cancer cell metastasis. Previous studies have reported the development of methods to detect and identify early circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream prior to their seeding into distant organs. Using a... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:27. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.20
    Published on: 11 Jun 2018  | Viewed:727  | Downloaded:52
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  • Review|Open Access

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy for gastric cancer

    Rie Makuuchi , Tomoyuki Irino , Yutaka Tanizawa , Etsuro Bando , Taiichi Kawamura , Masanori Terashima
    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is performed to achieve an R0 resection for gastric cancer with pancreatic and/or duodenal invasion. Several retrospective case series have been published, but the sample cohorts in each study were heterogeneous and small. Moreover, the absence of prospective studies results in a lack of solid evidence that will help determine who can benefit from this procedure. Although the morbidity and mortality of PD have been reported by most studies to be acceptable and that the procedure is feasible, these remained to be much higher than those of standard gastrectomy.... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:26. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.15
    Published on: 7 Jun 2018  | Viewed:203  | Downloaded:18
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Anti-oxidation properties of leaves, skin, pulp, and seeds extracts from green papaya and their anti-cancer activities in breast cancer cells

    Shrefa A. Hadadi , Haiwen Li , Reza Rafie , Paul Kaseloo , Sarah M. Witiak , Rafat A. Siddiqui
    Aim: Breast cancer is typically detected either during a screening examination or after a woman notices a lump. Breast cancers have different phenotypes depending on the presence/absence of an estrogen receptor (ER) and/or an epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptor. The objective of the present investigation was to investigate growth inhibitory activity of methanol-, ethanol-, and water-extracts from papaya fruit and leaves on MDA-MB-231 (ER-/Her-2-), MCF-7 (ER+/Her-2-), SK-BR- 3 (ER-/Her-2+) and MDA-MB-361, AU565 (ER+/Her-2+) breast cancer cells. Methods: The anti-oxidation potential of... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:25. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.22
    Published on: 30 May 2018  | Viewed:359  | Downloaded:19
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  • Review|Open Access

    Management of metastatic esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    Tasuku Toihata , Yu Imamura , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    The prognosis of metastatic disease of esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma remains poor, despite using a variety of regimens using cytotoxic agents. Recent understanding of molecular characteristic and tumor microenvironment of this cancer is currently instigating new therapeutic options. In this review, we summarized previous evidences of cytotoxic agents widely used worldwide, and updated recent developments of molecular targeted drugs, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:24. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.82
    Published on: 17 May 2018  | Viewed:400  | Downloaded:32
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  • Review|Open Access

    Treatment strategy for metastatic gastric cancer in Japan

    Kojiro Eto , Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe , Hideo Baba
    Despite recent progress in diagnostic imaging, gastric cancer (GC) is occasionally found at an advanced stage with distant metastasis. As metastatic GC is difficult to cure, the treatment strategy should be considered individually based on the physical and socioeconomic status of patients as well as on the GC symptoms. The first choice of treatment for metastatic GC is chemotherapy, and several chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic or recurrent GC have been developed through randomized controlled trials. Ongoing clinical trials will provide novel therapeutic options for patients with... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:23. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.73
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:457  | Downloaded:63
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  • Review|Open Access

    Conversion surgery for stage IV gastric cancer

    Satoshi Ida , Masayuki Watanabe
    Gastric cancer with distant metastases, such as para-aortic lymph node metastases, hepatic metastases, and peritoneal dissemination, is classified as stage IV. In this situation, cancer cells have formed micrometastases throughout the body; therefore, according to the algorithm of the Japanese guidelines, stage IV cancer is outside the indication for curative resection. Recent advances in some chemical agents have been remarkable, and some patients have survived for long periods even with stage IV gastric cancer. Thus, even in patients with stage IV gastric cancer, there is a possibility... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:22. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.75
    Published on: 16 May 2018  | Viewed:482  | Downloaded:77
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    The combined analysis of solid and liquid biopsies provides additional clinical information to improve patient care

    Ana Finzel , Helen Sadik , Gregori Ghitti , Jean-François Laes
    Aim: To investigate if the genetic information provided by sequencing of both solid and liquid biopsies can shed light on tumor heterogeneity, and to understand the clinical usefulness of adding blood profiling to standard tissue analysis in cancer care. Methods: Data from 351 patients with stage IV solid tumors for whom molecular profiling of their solid and liquid biopsies was available were studied, with a focus on the discrepant molecular information found between tissue and blood samples. Results: In 86% of patients, solid and liquid biopsies provided different molecular information.... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:21. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.10
    Published on: 8 May 2018  | Viewed:967  | Downloaded:64
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  • Letter|Open Access

    Hypoxia in prostate cancer

    Peter Vaupel
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:20. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.30
    Published on: 7 May 2018  | Viewed:203  | Downloaded:38
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  • Review|Open Access

    The role of long noncoding RNAs in cancer metastasis

    Christine Parsons , Alexis M. Tayoun , Benjamin D. Benado , Gabriel Ragusa , Rose F. Dorvil , Elizabeth A. Rourke , Kaitlyn O’ Connor , Irene G. Reed , Angela Alexander , Lian Willetts , Maryam Habibian , Brian D. Adams
    Signaling pathways are tightly controlled systems that regulate the appropriate timing of gene expression required for the differentiation of cells down a particular lineage essential for proper tissue development. Proliferation, apoptosis and metabolic pathways are just a few examples of the signaling pathways that require fine-tuning, so as to control the proper development of a particular tissue type or organ system. An estimated 70% of the genome is actively transcribed, only 2% of which codes for known protein-coding genes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in particular, are a large and... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:19. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.11
    Published on: 28 Apr 2018  | Viewed:1001  | Downloaded:96
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  • Review|Open Access

    Recent trend in gastric cancer treatment in the USA

    Kazuto Harada , Hideo Baba , Jaffer A. Ajani
    Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is estimated as the fifteenth most common cancer in the USA. Incidence rate has been gradually decreasing, but prognosis remains dismal. For patients with locally advanced GAC (stage > T1B and < T4B), multimodality therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, are needed. Perioperative chemotherapy or postoperative chemoradiation/chemotherapy is recommended. For metastatic GAC patients, combination of two cytotoxics (platinum compound and fluoropyrimidine) has become a common place in the USA, and when HER2 is positive, trastuzumab is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:18. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.74
    Published on: 26 Apr 2018  | Viewed:607  | Downloaded:62
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Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment ISSN 2454-2857 (Online), ISSN 2394-4722 (Print)
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