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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Tumor cell invasion from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins during early-stage lymph node metastasis can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis

    Tetsuya Kodama, Shiro Mori, Masato Nose
    Aim: To investigate whether tumor cells in a lymph node (LN) can invade from the marginal sinus into extranodal veins via vessel branches that communicate with intranodal veins and whether this can be a starting point for hematogenous metastasis at the early stage of LN metastasis. Methods: Vascular and lymphatic networks of LNs in MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice were investigated using three-dimensional micro-computed tomography and histological methods. Flow in the blood vessel networks of LNs was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. Tumor cells were injected into the subiliac LNs of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:56. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.61
    Published on: 9 Nov 2018  | Viewed:285  | Downloaded:21
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  • Review|Open Access

    Immunotherapy in colorectal cancer treatment: actual landscape and future perspectives

    Alessandro Bittoni, Valeria Sotte, Tania Meletani, Luca Cantini, Riccardo Giampieri, Rossana Berardi
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the second most common cancer in Europe with marked differences in prognosis and response to treatments. In the past years research showed emerging interest in genomic and immunologic fields. The clinical heterogeneity, that occurs during the pathogenesis of CRC, is driven by chromosomal alterations and defective function of DNA mismatch repair genes. CRC is classified in four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with different immunogenic characteristics and prognosis. CMS1 microsatellite instable (MSI)-like and CMS4, both characterized by high levels of... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:55. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.37
    Published on: 26 Oct 2018  | Viewed:335  | Downloaded:12
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  • Review|Open Access

    Circulating tumor cells and the metastatic process: the complexity of malignancy

    Tania Di Raimo, Elena De Santis, Luigi Coppola, Mario Rosario D’Andrea, Francesco Angelini
    Despite improvements achieved in terms of early detection and therapeutic approach, metastatic breast cancer remains one of the principal worldwide causes of death. In recent years, due to the heterogeneous response of each patient to chemotherapy, clinical research highlights the need of a personalized approach. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represents a promising tool for this purpose. Unfortunately, even if their correlation with severity, outcome and metastatic nature of the tumor has been established, several issues, mainly concerning their
    characterization and isolation, need to be
    ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Metastasis
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:54. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.50
    Published on: 25 Oct 2018  | Viewed:608  | Downloaded:79
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Secondary malignancy estimation in patients after mastectomy and adjuvant therapy

    Oludare Folajimi Adeyemi, Okhuomaruyi David Osahon, Enosakhare Godwin Okungbowa
    Aim: Secondary malignancy estimation after radiotherapy of post mastectomy patients is becoming an important subject for comparative treatment planning. The data from modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patients, thereby opening up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. Methods: This study estimates the probability of secondary malignancy using radiobiological model for post mastectomy patients in a low-resource center, Nigeria. The secondary cancer... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:53. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.12
    Published on: 8 Oct 2018  | Viewed:557  | Downloaded:25
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  • Perspective|Open Access

    Pharmacogenetics and cancer management

    Harish Padh
    The science of one’s genetic background and its impact on disease susceptibility and drug response has come of age and firmly established its proper place in the clinic. Its impact is felt more in the treatment of cancer than any other disease area several reasons: critical time, narrow therapeutic index and overlapping toxicity window. We realize that the true potential of pharmacogenetics will be realized when we have been able to integrate other variants like insertion-deletion, copy number variation, etc., in addition to single nucleotide polymorphism for their collective influence on... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Pharmacogenomics
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:52. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.51
    Published on: 29 Sep 2018  | Viewed:439  | Downloaded:16
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Two sides to colon cancer: mice mimic human anatomical region disparity in colon cancer development and progression

    Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Aaron C. Shang, Shien Hu, Shannon M. Larabee, Cinthia B. Drachenberg, Jean-Pierre Raufman
    Aim: Strong evidence reveals important differences between cancers in the proximal vs. distal colon. Animal models of metastatic colon cancer are available but with varying degrees of reproducibility and several important limitations. We explored whether there were regional differences in the location of murine colon cancers and assessed the utility of murine models to explore the biological basis for such differences. Methods: We re-analyzed data from our previous studies to assess the regional distribution of murine colon cancer. In survival surgery experiments, we injected HT-29 human... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorectal Cancer Progression and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:51. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.39
    Published on: 27 Sep 2018  | Viewed:520  | Downloaded:22
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  • Case Report|Open Access

    Cryptic NUP214-ABL1 fusion with complex karyotype, episomes and intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in a T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Moneeb A.K Othman, Beate Grygalewicz, Agnieszka Kołkowska-Leśniak, Joana B. Melo, Isabel M. Carreira, Thomas Liehr
    T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is a rare and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and little is known about their molecular background. However, complex karyotypes were already related to this group of malignancy and associated with poor outcome. Here, we describe a 17-year-old female being diagnosed with T-LBL and a normal karyotype after standard G-banding with trypsin-Giemsa (GTG)-banding. However, further analyses including high-resolution molecular approaches, array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, fluorescence in situ... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:50. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.41
    Published on: 21 Sep 2018  | Viewed:714  | Downloaded:27
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  • Review|Open Access

    NSAID celecoxib: a potent mitochondrial pro-oxidant cytotoxic agent sensitizing metastatic cancers and cancer stem cells to chemotherapy

    Stephen John Ralph, Sam Nozuhur, Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Rhys Pritchard
    Intermittent hypoxia within tumor microenvironments causes pro-oxidative stress impairing oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In primary tumors this provokes metabolic reprogramming of both tumor cells and cancer stem cells and emergence of highly metastatic cancer cells. Tumor reprogramming is initiated by activating nuclear respiratory factors and hypoxia-inducible factors in response to changes in oxygen and ROS levels. Hence, hypoxia-induced pro-oxidative stress drives invasion and metastasis. However, it is also... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:49. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.42
    Published on: 20 Sep 2018  | Viewed:1145  | Downloaded:60
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction to the special issue on reviews of gastric cancer metastasis and treatment

    Masayuki Watanabe
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:48. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.60
    Published on: 17 Sep 2018  | Viewed:430  | Downloaded:25
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  • Review|Open Access

    Unmasking tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution by single-cell analysis

    Xiaoshan Shi, Papia Chakraborty, Amitabha Chaudhuri
    The intratumoral heterogeneity orchestrated by the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms enable cancers to persist and spread notwithstanding the use of aggressive interventional therapies. The heterogeneity is revealed at multiple levels - at the level of individual tumor cells, in the cellular composition of tumor infiltrates and in the chemical microenvironment in which the cells reside. Deconvoluting the complex nature of the cell types present in the tumor, along with the homo and heterotypic interactions between different cell types can produce novel insights of biological and... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:47. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.32
    Published on: 31 Aug 2018  | Viewed:2193  | Downloaded:142
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Increased ARF6 activation correlates with HGF stimulation in non-invasive prostate cancer cells

    Claire Morgan, Lucy J. Swithenbank, Helen Whiteland, Shareen H. Doak
    Aim: The effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on a non-invasive prostate cancer cell line (CAHPV-10), expressing cMET were studied, to mimic the possible effects neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy may have in promoting tumour progression. Methods: Prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells derived from cancer metastatic sites were analysed using cell culture assays, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, with or without HGF stimulation. Results: HGF significantly enhanced cell proliferation and induced cell scattering... Read more
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:46. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.19
    Published on: 30 Aug 2018  | Viewed:745  | Downloaded:111
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  • Editorial|Open Access

    Introduction of the special issue “How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?”

    Jason P. Webber, Klaus Pors
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:45. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.46
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:496  | Downloaded:139
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  • Review|Open Access

    Expression and regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenases in prostate cancer

    Ali I. M. Ibrahim, Maria Sadiq, Fiona M. Frame, Norman J. Maitland, Klaus Pors
    The functional role of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) in prostate cancer remains an area of some controversy. Many studies have used high ALDH functional activity to isolate putative cancer stem cells with tumour-initiating and propagating properties, while evidence is also emerging about the involvement of specific isoforms in migration, invasiveness and metastasis. Identification of specific ALDH isoforms, which contribute to both drug resistance and aggressiveness of the disease remains a challenge within the complex heterogeneity of prostate cancer. The purpose of this perspective is... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue How does the prostate cancer microenvironment affect the metastatic process and/or treatment outcome?
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:44. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.07
    Published on: 21 Aug 2018  | Viewed:1063  | Downloaded:150
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  • Review|Open Access

    Centrosome aberrations and chromosome instability contribute to tumorigenesis and intra-tumor heterogeneity

    Shirley Jusino, Fabiola M. Fernández-Padín, Harold I. Saavedra
    Centrosomes serve as the major microtubule organizing centers in cells and thereby contribute to cell shape, polarity, and motility. Also, centrosomes ensure equal chromosome segregation during mitosis. Centrosome aberrations arise when the centrosome cycle is deregulated, or as a result of cytokinesis failure. A long-standing postulate is that centrosome aberrations are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer. However, this notion has been a subject of controversy because until recently the relationship has been correlative. Recently, it was shown that numerical or structural... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:43. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.24
    Published on: 7 Aug 2018  | Viewed:910  | Downloaded:93
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  • Review|Open Access

    Genomic heterogeneity meets cellular energetics: crosstalk between the mitochondria and the cell cycle

    Erica L. Herrera, Seham Z. Azzam, Madison C. Berger, Laura A. Diaz-Martinez
    Changes in cellular energetics and genomic instability are two characteristics of cancers that have been studied independently. Evidence of cross-talk between mitochondria function and nuclear function has started to emerge, suggesting that these pathways can influence one another. Here we review recent evidence that links the mitochondria and the cell cycle. This evidence indicates bidirectional cross-talk where mitochondria function can regulate the cell cycle and induce genomic instability, and conversely, the cell cycle machinery regulates mitochondria function. Implications for this... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:42. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.35
    Published on: 6 Aug 2018  | Viewed:958  | Downloaded:236
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    Extracellular control of chromosomal instability and maintenance of intra-tumoral heterogeneity

    Yi-Hong Zhou, Kambiz Afrasiabi, Mark E. Linskey
    Aim: Current cancer treatments are challenged by the plasticity of cancer cells, largely influenced by chromosomal instability (CIN) leading to variations in karyotype known as tumor-specific aneuploidy, which in turn, leads to intra-tumor cellular heterogeneity (TH). Cells with certain chromosomal defects often survive treatment and the growth-associated states of TH persist in recurrent tumors. Modulation of the CIN rate seems to reside within the tumor itself. In an attempt to develop a therapy targeting cancer plasticity, we studied the possible extracellular control of CIN rate in... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:41. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.16
    Published on: 2 Aug 2018  | Viewed:634  | Downloaded:146
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  • Review|Open Access

    Robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    Masanori Tokunaga, Masahiro Watanabe, Shizuki Sugita, Akiko Tonouchi, Akio Kaito, Takahiro Kinoshita
    Robotic gastrectomy (RG) is increasingly performed, particularly in East Asia. With articulated devices, surgeons are able to perform every procedure more comfortably and meticulously, which makes RG ideal from the surgeon’s standpoint. However, it is still unclear whether it is a suitable treatment strategy from the patient’s viewpoint, due to the lack of solid evidence obtained from randomized controlled trials. The feasibility of RG has been demonstrated in many retrospective comparative studies, which showed similar trends, including relatively less estimated blood loss and longer... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:40. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.80
    Published on: 30 Jul 2018  | Viewed:718  | Downloaded:128
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  • Review|Open Access

    Molecular mechanism of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer

    Qing-Jiang Hu, Shuhei Ito, Kazuyoshi Yanagihara, Koshi Mimori
    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) is the most common cause of metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). Because there are no standard treatments for PD, it is associated with a poor prognosis. Although clinicians have performed intraperitoneal chemotherapy for GC with PD, the outcome remains unsatisfactory. Therefore, the development of novel treatments and diagnostic tools for PD is expected to improve the prognosis of GC patients with PD. Notably, it is essential to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of PD in GC. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of PD (three... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:39. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.08
    Published on: 26 Jul 2018  | Viewed:720  | Downloaded:175
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  • Review|Open Access

    Laparoscopic personalized function-preserving gastrectomy with sentinel node mapping for early-stage gastric cancer

    Hiroya Takeuchi, Yuko Kitagawa
    Laparoscopic gastrectomy is considered as an indispensable option between endoscopic resection and standard gastrectomy with open laparotomy for patients with early-stage gastric cancer. However, the extent of gastrectomy and remnant gastric function may affect patients’ quality of life (QOL) after surgery. Therefore, function-preserving gastrectomy in addition to laparoscopic surgery could be considered in patients with early-stage gastric cancer. A prospective multicenter trial and meta-analyses of sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy for early-stage gastric cancer have demonstrated... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews of Gastric Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:38. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2017.83
    Published on: 23 Jul 2018  | Viewed:582  | Downloaded:148
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  • Original Article|Open Access

    New insights into the role of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in carcinogenesis: identification of complex single gene variance within tumors

    Bruce Gottlieb, Farbod Babrzadeh, Kathleen Klein Oros, Carlos Alvarado, Chunlin Wang, Baback Gharizadeh, Mark Basik, Celia M.T. Greenwood, Lenore K. Beitel, Mark Trifiro
    Aim: Present cancer hypotheses are almost all based on the concept that accumulation of specific driver gene mutations cause carcinogenesis. The discovery of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH), has resulted in this hypothesis being modified by assuming that most of these ITGH mutations are in passenger genes. In addition, accumulating ITGH data on driver gene mutations have revealed considerable genotype/phenotype disconnects. This study proposes to investigate this disconnect by examining the nature and degree of ITGH in breast tumors. Methods: ITGH was examined in tumors using next... Read more
    This article belongs to the Special Issue Intra-Tumour Genetic Heterogeneity
    J Cancer Metastasis Treat 2018;4:37. | doi:10.20517/2394-4722.2018.26
    Published on: 19 Jul 2018  | Viewed:938  | Downloaded:100
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Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment ISSN 2454-2857 (Online), ISSN 2394-4722 (Print)
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